How to teach value-loaded critical thinking in philosophical classroom discussions?An important aim of education is that students learn to think critically about moral issues. Philosophy is one of the subjects that is expected to contribute to this aim, because of its subject matter and the dialogic teaching methods. The aim of this study is to explore how philosophical classroom discussions can promote value-loaded critical thinking. First, we discuss the work of Dewey, Arendt and Habermas on moral reasoning and educational literature on critical thinking, in order to find characteristics of philosophical classroom discussions in which students engage in value-loaded critical thinking. These characteristics are: the discussions are 1) genuine dialogues, in which 2) logical reasoning and 3) moral values are addressed in 4) a transfer-oriented manner. Second, we translate these characteristics into teaching strategies, based on empirical research complemented with examples from philosophical classroom discussions. We conclude that philosophical classroom discussions might promote value-loaded critical thinking by open and critical investigation of values; with an emphasis on logically valid reasoning. However, we recommend further development of teaching strategies for perspective-taking, de- and recontextualisation, and reflection.
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DOI 10.5117/antw2018.1.romb
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