Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):533-542 (2013)

Freddy Mortier
University of Ghent
Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. A content analysis of opinion pieces in medical and nursing literature was conducted to examine how clinicians define and describe CSD, and how they justify this practice morally. Most publications were written by physicians and published in palliative or general medicine journals. Terminal Sedation and Palliative Sedation are the most frequently used terms to describe CSD. Seventeen definitions with varying content were identified. CSD was found to be morally justified in 73 % of the publications using justifications such as Last Resort, Doctrine of Double Effect, Sanctity of Life, Autonomy, and Proportionality. The debate over CSD in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals lacks uniform terms and definitions, and is profoundly marked by ‘charged language’, aiming at realizing agreement in attitude towards CSD. Not all of the moral justifications found are equally straightforward. To enable a more effective debate, the terms, definitions and justifications for CSD need to be further clarified.
Keywords Terminal Sedation  Palliative Sedation  Deep Sedation  Content analysis  Opinions  Palliative care  Terminal care
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DOI 10.1007/s11019-012-9444-2
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Ethics and Language.DeWitt H. Parker - 1946 - Philosophical Review 55 (6):704.
Ethics and Language.Charles L. Stevenson - 1945 - Mind 54 (216):362-373.

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