Bioethics 25 (1):9-20 (2011)

Benjamin Sachs
New York University
In research ethics there is a canon regarding what ethical rules ought to be followed by investigators vis-à-vis their treatment of subjects and a canon regarding what fundamental ethical principles apply to the endeavor. What I aim to demonstrate here is that several of the rules find no support in the principles. This leaves anyone who would insist that we not abandon those rules in the difficult position of needing to establish that we are nevertheless justified in believing in the validity of the rules. I conclude by arguing that this is not likely to be accomplished.The rules I call into question are the rules requiring:– that studies be designed in a scientifically valid way– that risks to subjects be minimized– that subjects be afforded post-trial access to experimental interventions– that inducements paid to subjects not be counted as a benefit to them– that inducements paid to subjects not be ‘undue’– that subjects must remain free to withdraw from the study at any time for any reason without penaltyBoth canons, the canon on principles and the canon on rules, are found in the overlap among ethical pronouncements that are themselves canonical: the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki, the Belmont Report, CIOMS's International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, and NBAC's 2001 report, Ethical Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries
Keywords Belmont Report  respect for persons  Nuremberg Code  research ethics  beneficence  Declaration of Helsinki  justice
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1111/j.1467-8519.2009.01744.x
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 60,694
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Introducción al problema de la continuidad del tratamiento beneficioso para los sujetos de investigación.Ignacio Mastroleo - 2015 - In Jorge Alberto Álvarez Díaz (ed.), Ensayos sobre ética de la salud. Ciudad de México: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Unidad Xochimilco. pp. 67 - 99.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles


Added to PP index

Total views
53 ( #195,761 of 2,438,564 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
2 ( #283,612 of 2,438,564 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes