Das Manifest für eine neue Ontologie: Metaphysik My 10

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This study is dedicated to the chapter Metaphysics My 10, which, in my opinion, represents an example of basic research as regards Aristotle’s ontological investigations. The aim of my analysis is to point out that the chapter constitutes a manifesto for a new ontology: this new ontology is Aristotle’s typological ontology. The main entities of the typological ontology are universals, on the one hand, and instantiations of universals, on the other hand. The ontological levels, to which these two kinds of entities belong, are different from each other: therefore they must be kept rigorously separated from each other. The new ontology constitutes a clear opposition to the ontology of ideas. In my opinion Aristotle does not aim at eliminating universals from the range of the existing entities: At least the universals which correspond to biological kinds (such as „man“ or „animal“) and to all the properties connected to these biological kinds are real entities, even though they do not exist at the same level at which the level of the instantiations do. Aristotle’s aim is thus to assign universals and individuals to different realms of reality. The reality consists both of individuals and of universals: these kinds of entities occupy different realms of reality.
Keywords Universals  Instantiations  Individuals  Ideas  Realms of reality  Natural kinds  Biological Programmes  Dispositions  Typological ontology  Essence
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