In Kunst Und Ontologie: Für Roman Ingarden zum 100. Geburtstag. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 97-118 (1994)

Barry Smith
State University of New York, Buffalo
Ingarden distinguishes four strata making up the structure of the literary work of art: the stratum of word sounds and sound-complexes; the stratum of meaning units; the stratum of represented objectivities (characters, actions, settings, and so forth); and the stratum of schematized aspects (perspectives under which the represented objectivities are given to the reader). It is not only works of literature which manifest this four-fold structure but also certain borderline cases such as newspaper articles, scientific works, biographies, and so forth. Ingarden specifies what is characteristic of a work of literature by asserting that all declarative sentences appearing in the stratum of meaning units of such work possess what he calls a quasi-judgmental character. We discuss here Ingarden’s theory of quasi-judgments and draw out its implication that all works of literature are works of fiction through and through.
Keywords Roman Ingarden  quasi-judgments
Categories (categorize this paper)
Buy the book Find it on
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

 PhilArchive page | Other versions
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Truth and Reference in Fiction.Stavroula Glezakos - 2012 - In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
According to the Fiction. A Metaexpressivist Account.Daniel Dohrn - 2015 - Proceedings of the European Society of Aesthetics 7.
Fiction Cannot Be True.László Kajtár - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (9):2167-2186.
Explicitism About Truth in Fiction.William D’Alessandro - 2016 - British Journal of Aesthetics 56 (1):53-65.
Judgment in Fiction.David Ryan - 2002 - South African Journal of Philosophy 21 (1):63-82.
Truth, Relativism, and Serial Fiction.Andrew McGonigal - 2013 - British Journal of Aesthetics 53 (2):165-179.
Much Ado About Nonexistence: Fiction and Reference.Hatem Rushdy (ed.) - 2007 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
The Matter of Serial Fiction.Chris Tillman - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (2):425-439.
Truth in Fiction: A Theory of Aesthetic Relevance.Noel Houston Tisdale - 1983 - Dissertation, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick
Fiction and Acceptance-Relative Truth, Belief and Assertion.R. M. Sainsbury - 2011 - In Franck Lihoreau (ed.), Truth in Fiction. Ontos Verlag. pp. 38--137.
Contexts, Fiction and Truth.Alberto Voltolini - 2013 - In A. Capone, M. Carapezza & F. Lo Piparo (eds.), Perspectives on Pragmatics and Philosophy. Springer. pp. 489-500.
Much Ado About Nonexistence: Fiction and Reference.Avrum Stroll (ed.) - 2007 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Truth in Fiction.David K. Postscripts to Lewis - 1978 - American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (1):37--46.
Serial Fiction, Continued.B. Caplan - 2014 - British Journal of Aesthetics 54 (1):65-76.


Added to PP index

Total views
129 ( #78,026 of 2,427,621 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
9 ( #76,005 of 2,427,621 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes