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The world, the all-inclusive unity of entities in real actuality, is the field whence the various positive sciences draw their realms of research. Directed straight at the world, these sciences in their allied totality seem to aim at a complete knowledge of the world and thus to take charge of answering all questions that can be asked about entities. It seems there is no field left to philosophy for its own investigations. But does not Greek science, already in its first decisive beginnings, direct its unceasing efforts towards entities as such? Do not entities as such serve it as the subject matter of a fundamental science of being, a "first philosophy"? For Greek science, to directly determine entities -- both individuals and even the universal whole, and in whatever regard they be taken -- did not mean to understand entities as such. Entities as entities -- that is, with regard to their being -- are enigmatic.2 For a long time the lines of inquiry and the answers remain tangled in obscurities. Nonetheless, in the first steps of this "first philosophy"3 one may already see the source whence springs the questionability of entities as such. Parmenides seeks to clarify being4 via a reflection on one's thinking about entities. Plato's disclosure of the Ideas takes its bearings from the soul's..
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