Susanna Siegel
Harvard University
This paper makes the case that when wishful thinking ill-founds belief, the belief depends on the desire in ways can be recapitulated at the level of perceptual experience. The relevant kinds of desires include motivations, hopes, preferences, and goals. I distinguish between two modes of dependence of belief on desire in wishful thinking: selective or inquiry-related, and responsive or evidence-related. I offers a theory of basing on which beliefs are badly-based on desires, due to patterns of dependence that can found in the relationship between experiences and desires as well. This conclusion brings us a large part of the way to the conclusion that like beliefs, experiences can be ill-founded by depending on a desire.
Keywords perceptual justification  cognitive penetrability  wishful thinking  rationality  irrationality  implicit bias
Categories (categorize this paper)
Reprint years 2017
DOI 10.1111/phpr.12273
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

 PhilArchive page | Other versions
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Knowledge and Its Limits.Timothy Williamson - 2000 - Philosophy 76 (297):460-464.
The Modularity of Mind.Robert Cummins & Jerry Fodor - 1983 - Philosophical Review 94 (1):101.
Knowledge and its Limits.Timothy Williamson - 2000 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (1):200-201.
What is Inference?Paul Boghossian - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 169 (1):1-18.
The Epistemic Impact of the Etiology of Experience.Susanna Siegel - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 162 (3):697-722.

View all 15 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Motivated Reasoning and the Ethics of Belief.Jon Ellis - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (6):e12828.

View all 15 citations / Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Irrationality and the Dynamic Unconscious: The Case for Wishful Thinking.P. G. Sturdee - 1995 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2 (2):163-174.
How Not to Avoid Wishful Thinking.Mark Schroeder - 2011 - In Michael Brady (ed.), New Waves in Metaethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
The Elusive Wishful Thinking Effect.Maya Bar-Hillel & David Budescu - 1995 - Thinking and Reasoning 1 (1):71 – 103.
Motivated Irrationality.David Pears - 1984 - St. Augustine's Press.
Wishful Thinking and "The Will to Believe".Stephen T. Davis - 1972 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 8 (4):231 - 245.
How Noncognitivists Can Avoid Wishful Thinking.David Enoch - 2003 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (4):527-545.
Imagination, Fantasy, Wishful Thinking and Truth.Joanne B. Ciulla - 1998 - The Ruffin Series of the Society for Business Ethics 1998:99-107.
The Inadequacy of Wishful Thinking Charges Against William James's "The Will to Believe".Hunter Brown - 1997 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 33 (2):488 - 519.
Wishful Thinking and Self-Deception.Bela Szabados - 1973 - Analysis 33 (June):201-205.


Added to PP index

Total views
2,307 ( #1,844 of 2,518,752 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
75 ( #10,237 of 2,518,752 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes