Cognitive Science 39 (1):212-226 (2015)

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Abstract
Words refer to objects in the world, but this correspondence is not one-to-one: Each word has a range of referents that share features on some dimensions but differ on others. This property of language is called underspecification. Parts of the lexicon have characteristic patterns of underspecification; for example, artifact nouns tend to specify shape, but not color, whereas substance nouns specify material but not shape. These regularities in the lexicon enable learners to generalize new words appropriately. How does the lexicon come to have these helpful regularities? We test the hypothesis that systematic backgrounding of some dimensions during learning and use causes language to gradually change, over repeated episodes of transmission, to produce a lexicon with strong patterns of underspecification across these less salient dimensions. This offers a cultural evolutionary mechanism linking individual word learning and generalization to the origin of regularities in the lexicon that help learners generalize words appropriately
Keywords Cultural transmission  Attentional learning  Language evolution  Word meaning  Language and conceptualization  Iterated learning
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DOI 10.1111/cogs.12150
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Word Learning as Bayesian Inference.Fei Xu & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (2):245-272.
Theories of Lexical Semantics.Dirk Geeraerts - 2010 - Oxford University Press.

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