Bioethics 28 (9):456-471 (2014)

A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: most are false. The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it
Keywords research subjects  access to healthcare  moral obligations  gift giving  clinical trials as topic  ethics
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1111/bioe.12039
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 53,666
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Anarchy, State, and Utopia.Robert Nozick - 1974 - Philosophy 52 (199):102-105.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

How to Evaluate Conflict of Interest Policies.Daniel Strech & Hannes Knüppel - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):37 - 39.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Participants' Responsibilities in Clinical Research.David B. Resnik & Elizabeth Ness - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (12):746-750.
Must Research Participants Understand Randomization?David Wendler - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):3 – 8.
论积极的中庸——进取互利.Li-Jing Wang & Xin Xie - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:601-612.


Added to PP index

Total views
23 ( #433,985 of 2,349,374 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #510,581 of 2,349,374 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes