Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (5-6):507-516 (2013)

Abstract
We carry out a study of definability issues in the standard models of Presburger and Skolem arithmetics (henceforth referred to simply as Presburger and Skolem arithmetics, for short, because we only deal with these models, not the theories, thus there is no risk of confusion) supplied with free unary predicates—which are strongly related to definability in the monadic SOA (second-order arithmetic) without × or + , respectively. As a consequence, we obtain a very direct proof for ${\Pi^1_1}$ -completeness of Presburger, and also Skolem, arithmetic with a free unary predicate, generalize it to all ${\Pi^1_n}$ -levels, and give an alternative description of the analytical hierarchy without × or + . Here ‘direct’ means that one explicitly m-reduces the truth of ${\Pi^1_1}$ -formulae in SOA to the truth in the extended structures. Notice that for the case of Presburger arithmetic, the ${\Pi^1_1}$ -completeness was already known, but the proof was indirect and exploited some special ${\Pi^1_1}$ -completeness results on so-called recurrent nondeterministic Turing machines—for these reasons, it was hardly able to shed any light on definability issues or possible generalizations
Keywords Definability  Expressiveness  Decidability  Computational complexity  Presburger arithmetic  Skolem arithmetic
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DOI 10.1007/s00153-013-0328-9
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References found in this work BETA

Definability and Decision Problems in Arithmetic.Julia Robinson - 1949 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (2):98-114.
Decidability and Essential Undecidability.Hilary Putnam - 1957 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (1):39-54.
Undecidable Extensions of Skolem Arithmetic.Alexis Bès & Denis Richard - 1998 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 63 (2):379-401.

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