Punishment and the strategic structure of moral systems

Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):767–789 (2004)
Abstract
The problem of moral compliance is the problem of explaining how moral norms are sustained over extented stretches of time despite the existence of selfish evolutionary incentives that favor their violation. There are, broadly speaking, two kinds of solutions that have been offered to the problem of moral compliance, the reciprocity-based account and the punishment-based account. In this paper, I argue that though the reciprocity-based account has been widely endorsed by evolutionary theorists, the account is in fact deeply implausible. I provide three arguments that suggest that moral norms are sustained by punishment, not reciprocity. But in addition to solving the problem of moral compliance, the punishment-based account provides an additional important theoretical dividend. It points the way for how theorists might build an evolutionary account of a feature of human groups that has long fascinated and troubled social scientists and moral philosophers – the existence of moral diversity.
Keywords Moral norms  Evolution of morality  Reciprocity  Punishment  Cooperation  Evolutionary game theory  Moral diversity
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DOI 10.1007/s10539-004-5155-2
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References found in this work BETA
A Treatise of Human Nature.David Hume - 1739/2000 - Oxford University Press.
The Dynamics of Rational Deliberation.Brian Skyrms - 1990 - Harvard University Press.
Ethical Relativity.Edward Westermarck - 1932 - Westport, Conn., Greenwood Press.

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Citations of this work BETA
Excuse Validation: A Study in Rule-Breaking.John Turri & Peter Blouw - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (3):615-634.
The Evolution of Punishment.Hisashi Nakao & Edouard Machery - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):833-850.
Nativism and the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality.Brendan Cline - 2015 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 6 (2):231-253.

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