Kant's third law of mechanics: The long shadow of Leibniz

Abstract
This paper examines the origin, range and meaning of the Principle of Action and Reaction in Kant’s mechanics. On the received view, it is a version of Newton’s Third Law. I argue that Kant meant his principle as foundation for a Leibnizian mechanics. To find a ‘Newtonian’ law of action and reaction, we must look to Kant’s ‘dynamics,’ or theory of matter. I begin, in part I, by noting marked differences between Newton’s and Kant’s laws of action and reaction. I argue that these are explainable by Kant’s allegiance to a Leibnizian mechanics. I show (in part II) that Leibniz too had a model of action and reaction, at odds with Newton’s. Then I reconstruct how Jakob Hermann and Christian Wolff received Leibniz’s model. I present (in Part III) Kant’s early law of action and reaction for mechanics. I show that he devised it so as to solve extant problems in the Hermann-Wolff account. I reconstruct Kant’s views on ‘mechanical’ action and reaction in the 1780s, and highlight strong continuities with his earlier, pre-Critical stance. I use these continuities, and Kant’s earlier engagement with post-Leibnizians, to explain the un-Newtonian features of his law of action and reaction.
Keywords Kant  Leibniz  Christian Wolff  Classical mechanics  Dynamical laws  Interaction
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DOI 10.1016/j.shpsa.2012.10.014
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References found in this work BETA
Kant's Early Theory of Motion.Marius Stan - 2009 - The Leibniz Review 19:29-61.
Kant's Justification of the Laws of Mechanics.Eric Watkins - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (4):539-560.
The Laws of Motion From Newton to Kant.Eric Watkins - 1997 - Perspectives on Science 5:311-348.

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Newton and Wolff.Marius Stan - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):459-481.

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