Philosophical Studies 165 (2):605-627 (2013)

Evans distinguishes between superficial necessity and deep necessity in his analysis of the contingent a priori. The distinction between these two notions of necessity is formalized by Davies and Humberstone through the addition of the operator Fixedly to Actuality Modal Logic (AML, S5A), where deep necessity is represented by the combination Fixedly Actually. Wehmeier’s Subjunctive Modal Logic (SML) provides an extension of the expressive capacity of ordinary modal predicate logic alternative to AML. I add Fixedly to SML and show that in the system SML with Fixedly the distinction between deep and superficial necessity disappears. I conclude that the existence of the distinction between deep and superficial necessity, as well as the existence of the contingent a priori, cannot be asserted independently of the choice of background logic
Keywords Contingent a priori  Deep and superficial necessity  Quantified modal logic  Actuality operator  Indicative and subjunctive mood
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1007/s11098-012-9954-z
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 72,607
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Naming and Necessity.S. Kripke - 1972 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 45 (4):665-666.
Naming and Necessity.Saul Kripke - 2003 - In John Heil (ed.), Philosophy of Mind: A Guide and Anthology. Oxford University Press.
Two Notions of Necessity.Martin Davies & Lloyd Humberstone - 1980 - Philosophical Studies 38 (1):1-31.

View all 16 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Reference, Contingency, and the Two-Dimensional Framework.Martin Davies - 2004 - Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):83-131.
Causal Necessity in Aristotle.Nathanael Stein - 2012 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (5):855-879.
No Future.Leon Horsten & Hannes Leitgeb - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):259-265.
Comment on 'Two Notions of Necessity'.Gareth Evanss - 2004 - Philosophical Studies 118 (1-2):11 - 16.
Proper Names, Contingency A Priori and Necessity A Posteriori.Chen Bo - 2011 - History and Philosophy of Logic 32 (2):119 - 138.
Two Notions of Necessity.Martin Davies & Lloyd Humberstone - 1980 - Philosophical Studies 38 (1):1-31.
The Grounds of Necessity.Ross P. Cameron - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (4):348-358.
A Note on Ducasse's Notions of Cause and Etiological Necessity.James M. Humber - 1971 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 7 (4):237 - 242.


Added to PP index

Total views
73 ( #161,176 of 2,533,634 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #389,998 of 2,533,634 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes