Authors
Ariane Bazan
Université Libre de Bruxelles
Abstract
Primary and secondary processes are the foundational axes of the Freudian mental apparatus: one horizontally as a tendency to associate, the primary process, and one vertically as the ability for perspective taking, the secondary process. Primary process mentation is not only supposed to be dominant in the unconscious but also, for example, in dreams. The present study tests the hypothesis that the mental activity during REM-sleep has more characteristics of the primary process, while during non-REM-sleep more secondary process operations take place. Because the solving of a rebus requires the ability to non-contexually condensate the literal reading of single stimuli into a new one, rebus solving is a primary process operation by excellence. In a replication of the dream-rebus study of Shevrin and Fisher (1967), a rebus, which consisted of an image of a comb (German: “Kamm”) and an image of a raft (German: “Floß”), resulting in the German rebus word “kampflos” (Engl.: without a struggle), was flashed subliminally (at 1 ms) to 20 participants before going to sleep. Upon consecutive awakenings participants were asked for a dream report, free associations and an image description. Based on objective association norms, there were significantly more conceptual associations referring to Kamm and Floß indexing secondary process mentation when subjects were awakened from non-REM sleep as compared to REM-awakenings. There were not significantly more rebus associations referring to kampflos indexing primary process mentation when awakened from REM-sleep as compared to non-REM awakenings. However, when the associations were scored on the basis of each subject’s individual norms, there was a rebus effect with more idiosyncratic rebus associations in awakenings after REM than after non-REM-sleep. Our results support the general idea that REM-sleep is characterized by primary process thinking, while non-REM-sleep mentation follows the rules of the secondary process.
Keywords unconscious  signifier  rebus  Freud  primary process  subliminal  creativity  association
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01955
Options
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

 PhilArchive page | Other versions
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Dreaming and Rem Sleep Are Controlled by Different Brain Mechanisms.Mark Solms - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):843-850.

View all 17 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Rem Sleep is Not Committed to Memory.Robert P. Vertes & Kathleen E. Eastman - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1057-1063.
.Russell Conduit, Sheila Gillard Crewther & Grahame Coleman - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):924-928.
The Comparative Value of Continuous Versus Interrupted Sleep.R. W. Husband - 1935 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (6):792.
Inclusive Versus Exclusive Approaches to Sleep and Dream Research.Robert Stickgold - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1011-1013.
Mental Imagery During Sleep.Claude Gottesmann - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):193-193.
Time Course of Dreaming and Sleep Organization.Piero Salzarulo - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):1000-1000.
Sleep, Not Rem Sleep, is the Royal Road to Dreams.Alexander A. Borbély & Lutz Wittmann - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):911-912.
Antecedents of Sleep.Wilse B. Webb - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (3):162.
Rem Sleep = Dreaming: The Never-Ending Story.Corrado Cavallero - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):916-917.

Analytics

Added to PP index
2017-11-20

Total views
122 ( #96,970 of 2,518,075 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
19 ( #44,298 of 2,518,075 )

How can I increase my downloads?

Downloads

My notes