The mid-twentieth century saw the introduction of a new general model of processes, COMPUTATION, with the work of scientists such as Turing, Chomsky, Newell and Simon.1 This model so revolutionized the intellectual world that the dominant scientific programs of the day—spearheaded by such eminent scientists as Hilbert, Bloomfield and Skinner—are today remembered as much for the way computation exposed their stark limitations as for their positive contributions.2 Ever since, the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has defined itself as the subfield of computer science dedicated to the understanding of intelligent entities as computational processes. Now, drawing on fifty years of results of increasing breadth and applicability, we can also characterize AI research as a concrete practice: an ENGINEER-.
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