Anthropology of Consciousness 32 (1):81-106 (2021)

This paper explores a Rastafari perspective on consciousness development and relates this to developmental stage theories of consciousness evolution from the psychology of religion. The empirical material is from fieldwork on an online Rastafari community with global reach but run by a group based in Trinidad. The people on this particular forum align with the “spiritual, but not religious” trend in contemporary religiosity, which means they are more focused on interior questions of consciousness raising than on religious externals. This paper interprets empirical material from the dialogues on this forum in light of Rastafari theorist Dennis Forsythe. It compares this Rastafari theory of stages of consciousness, symbolized by the animals Anancy, lion, and lamb, to developmental theories of consciousness evolution. These are drawn from psychology and the psychology of religion (Maslow 1970; Kohlberg 1981; Fowler 1981; Gilligan 1982; Wilber 2007), which focus on preconventional, traditional, modern, pluralist, and integral stages.
Keywords Rastafari  consciousness  contemporary spirituality  psychology of religion  spiritual development
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.1111/anoc.12129
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 64,229
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

Rastafari: Roots and Ideology.Barry Chevannes - 1996 - Utopian Studies 7 (2):238-239.
Psychoanalysis and Religion.Erich Fromm - 1952 - Philosophy 27 (103):373-374.

Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Islamic Psychology: Emergence and Current Challenges.Naved Iqbal & Rasjid Skinner - 2021 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 43 (1):65-77.
Mind, Consciousness, and Religion.Fraser Watts - 2014 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 21 (3-4):216-229.
“Livity” and the Hermeneutics of the Self.Leslie R. James - 2019 - Clr James Journal 25 (1):195-219.
Psychology of Religion in Turkey (1949–2012): An Overview.Mustafa Koç - 2012 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 34 (3):327-340.
Buddhism & Western Psychology: Fundamentals of Integration.William Mikulas - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (4):4-49.


Added to PP index

Total views
21 ( #518,008 of 2,455,427 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
7 ( #98,327 of 2,455,427 )

How can I increase my downloads?


My notes