The meaning of facial expressions of pain lies in their use, not in their reference

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):472-473 (2002)
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Abstract

As a product of natural selection, pain behavior must serve an adaptive function for the species beyond the accurate portrayal of the pain experience. Pain behavior does not simply refer to the pain experience, but promotes survival of the species in various and complex ways. This means that there is no purely respondent or operant pain behavior found in nature.

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