In James M. Mattingly (ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. SAGE Publications. pp. 629-632 (2022)
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Paraconsistency is the study of logical systems with a non-explosive negation such that a pair of contradictory formulas (with respect to such negation) does not necessarily imply triviality, discordant to what would be expected by contemporary logical orthodoxy. From a purely logical point of view, the significance of paraconsistency relies on the meticulous distinction between the general notions of contradictoriness and triviality of a theory—respectively, the fact that a given theory proves a proposition and its negation, and the fact that a given theory proves any proposition (in the language of its underlying logic). Aside from this simple rationale, the formal techniques and approaches that meet the latter definitional requirement are manifold. Furthermore, it is not solely the logical-mathematical properties of such systems that are open to debate. Rather, there are several foundational and philosophical questions worth studying, including the very question about the nature of the contradictions allowed by paraconsistentists. This entry aims to advance a brief account of some distinct approaches to paraconsistency, providing a panorama on the development of paraconsistent logic.



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Rafael Testa
University of Campinas

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Paraconsistent Logic: Consistency, Contradiction and Negation.Walter Carnielli & Marcelo Esteban Coniglio - 2016 - Basel, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. Edited by Marcelo Esteban Coniglio.
Paraconsistent logic.Graham Priest - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

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