It's a Jumble Out There: How Talk of Levels Leads Us Astray

American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (4):285-296 (2014)

Authors
Amie Thomasson
Dartmouth College
Abstract
One often hears talk about some entities being "higher-level" than others: social and cultural objects, for example, are often said to be "higher-level" entities than organisms; mental properties are often said to be "higherlevel" than physical or neurological properties; and so on. Sometimes this is expressed as the idea that reality comes in ontological levels, strata of being. I will argue, however, that metaphysics is better off without making use of the idea of "levels." The levels metaphor is misleading and can generate pseudo-questions and pseudo-problems.
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References found in this work BETA

Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind.Wilfrid S. Sellars - 1956 - Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 1:253-329.
From an Ontological Point of View.John Heil - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
Unity of Science as a Working Hypothesis.Paul Oppenheim & Hilary Putnam - 1958 - Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 2:3-36.
Ordinary Objects.Amie Thomasson (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.

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