Direct Observation of Magnetic Vortices in Superconductors Using Electron Waves

Foundations of Physics 28 (1):59-86 (1998)

The development of a coherent field-emission electron beam has made it possible to observe microscopic magnetic lines of force by detecting the electron-wave phase shifts that are due to vector potentials. Electron-holographic interference microscopy has been used to observe magnetic lines of force of magnetic vortices in superconductors, and Lorentz microscopy has been used to observe the dynamics of the vortices. The observation of vortices not only helps us understand the microscopic mechanism of flux pinning, which holds the key to practical applications of superconductors, but also clarifies fundamental phenomena of superconductivity which have implications for more general physical phenomena
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DOI 10.1023/A:1018708420323
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