Pantheism, Panentheism, and Ecosophy: Getting Back to Spinoza?

Zygon 57 (3):545-563 (2022)
  Copy   BIBTEX


Many authors in the field of Environmental Philosophy have claimed to be inspired by Spinoza's monism, which has traditionally been considered a form of pantheism because nature and God coincide. This idea has deep normative implications, as some environmental ethicists claim that wounding nature is the same as wounding God, which implies a resacralization of nature. In particular, we will focus on Arne Næss's Ecosophy (or Deep Ecology) to offer a current relevant example of the pantheist (or panentheist) worldview. However, a new demarcation distinguishes pantheism from panentheism; in the latter, nature and God belong together but do not fully coincide, as in pantheism. Nevertheless, whether Spinoza is a panentheist, pantheist, or neither has yet to be fully determined, as well as whether his doctrine serves as a proper foundation for an ecology that attempts the aforementioned resacralization of nature. This article attempts to clarify these issues.



    Upload a copy of this work     Papers currently archived: 78,037

External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

Similar books and articles

Panentheism: What It Is and Is Not.Raphael Lataster & Purushottama Bilimoria - 2018 - Journal of World Philosophies 3 (2):49-64.
Panentheism is Still Vague: A Reply to Lataster and Bilimoria.R. T. Mullins - 2019 - Journal of World Philosophies 4 (1):204-207.
Ancient and contemporary expressions of panentheism.Chad Meister - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (9):e12436.
Panentheism and its neighbors.Mikael Stenmark - 2019 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 85 (1):23-41.
A crucial distinctive author contact information.John E. Culp - 2022 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 91 (3):145-159.
Models of God.Ted Peters - 2007 - Philosophia 35 (3-4):273-288.
Panentheism or Pansyntheism?Jerry H. Gill - 2019 - Process Studies 48 (2):273-278.


Added to PP

18 (#622,098)

6 months
11 (#96,562)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

Citations of this work

No citations found.

Add more citations

References found in this work

Monism: The Priority of the Whole.Jonathan Schaffer - 2010 - Philosophical Review 119 (1):31-76.
The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement. A summary.Arne Naess - 1973 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 16 (1-4):95 – 100.
Acosmism or weak individuals?: Hegel, Spinoza, and the reality of the finite.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2009 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (1):pp. 77-92.
On the relationship between mode and substance in Spinoza's metaphysics.John Peter Carriero - 1995 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 33 (2):245-273.

View all 26 references / Add more references