David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Theoria 78 (2):93-114 (2011)
Fitch showed that not every true proposition can be known in due time; in other words, that not every proposition is knowable. Moore showed that certain propositions cannot be consistently believed. A more recent dynamic phrasing of Moore-sentences is that not all propositions are known after their announcement, i.e., not every proposition is successful. Fitch's and Moore's results are related, as they equally apply to standard notions of knowledge and belief (S 5 and KD45, respectively). If we interpret ‘successful’ as ‘known after its announcement’ and ‘knowable’ as ‘known after some announcement’, successful implies knowable. Knowable does not imply successful: there is a proposition ϕ that is not known after its announcement but there is another announcement after which ϕ is known. We show that all propositions are knowable in the more general sense that for each proposition, it can become known or its negation can become known. We can get to know whether it is true: ◊(Kϕ ∨ K¬ϕ). This result comes at a price. We cannot get to know whether the proposition was true. This restricts the philosophical relevance of interpreting ‘knowable’ as ‘known after an announcement’
|Keywords||public announcements Fitch's paradox knowability modal logic dynamic epistemics|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
Carlos E. Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors & David Makinson (1985). On the Logic of Theory Change: Partial Meet Contraction and Revision Functions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (2):510-530.
Jaakko Hintikka (1962). Knowledge and Belief. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
A. J. Ayer (1936). Language, Truth and Logic. London: V. Gollancz.
Hans van Ditmarsch, Wiebe van Der Hoek & Barteld Kooi (2008). Dynamic Epistemic Logic. Studia Logica 89 (3):441-445.
Neil Tennant (1997). The Taming of the True. Oxford University Press.
Citations of this work BETA
Wesley H. Holliday, Tomohiro Hoshi & Thomas F. Icard Iii (2013). Information Dynamics and Uniform Substitution. Synthese 190 (1):31-55.
Similar books and articles
Elia Zardini, If Every True Proposition is Knowable, Then Every Believed (Decidable) Proposition is True, or the Incompleteness of the Intuitionistic Solution to the Paradox of Knowability.
Jason S. Baehr (2003). A Priori and a Posteriori. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
M. Hand (2003). Knowability and Epistemic Truth. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):216 – 228.
Greg Restall (2009). Not Every Truth Can Be Known (at Least, Not All at Once). In Joe Salerno (ed.), New Essays on the Knowability Paradox. Oxford University Press. pp. 339--354.
Ghislain Guigon (2009). Bringing About and Conjunction: A Reply to Bigelow on Omnificence. Analysis 69 (3):452-458.
Philippe Balbiani, Alexandru Baltag, Hans van Ditmarsch, Andreas Herzig, Tomohiro Hoshi & Tiago de Lima (2008). Knowable' as 'Known After an Announcement. Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (3):305-334.
Alberto Voltolini (1997). Contingent and Necessary Identities. Acta Analytica 19:73-98.
Aviv Hoffmann (2003). A Puzzle About Truth and Singular Propositions. Mind 112 (448):635-651.
Eric Dietrich (2000). A Counterexample T o All Future Dynamic Systems Theories of Cognition. J. Of Experimental and Theoretical AI 12 (2):377-382.
Neil Tennant (2002). Victor Vanquished. Analysis 62 (2):135–142.
Edward N. Zalta (1987). On the Structural Similarities Between Worlds and Times. Philosophical Studies 51 (2):213-239.
Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (2005). Why Truthmakers. In H. Beebee & J. Dodd (eds.), Truthmakers: the contemporary debate. Oxford University Press. pp. 17-31.
Manfred Müller (1991). Eine Widerlegung der Redundanztheorie der Wahrheit. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 22 (1):101-110.
Added to index2011-10-22
Total downloads62 ( #78,721 of 1,924,986 )
Recent downloads (6 months)34 ( #11,494 of 1,924,986 )
How can I increase my downloads?