Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 71:67-76 (2018)
AbstractIn the present paper I investigate the role that analogy plays in eighteenth-century biology and in Kant’s philosophy of biology. I will argue that according to Kant, biology, as it was practiced in the eighteenth century, is fundamentally based on analogical reflection. However, precisely because biology is based on analogical reflection, biology cannot be a proper science. I provide two arguments for this interpretation. First, I argue that although analogical reflection is, according to Kant, necessary to comprehend the nature of organisms, it is also necessarily insufficient to fully comprehend the nature of organisms. The upshot of this argument is that for Kant our understanding of organisms is necessarily limited. Second, I argue that Kant did not take biology to be a proper science because biology was based on analogical arguments. I show that Kant stemmed from a philosophical tradition that did not assign analogical arguments an important justificatory role in natural science. Analogy, according to this conception, does not provide us with apodictically certain cognition. Hence, sciences based on analogical arguments cannot constitute proper sciences.
Similar books and articles
Kant's Copernican Analogy: Beyond the Non-Specific Reading.Dennis Schulting - 2009 - Studi Kantiani 22:39-65.
Sissela Bok on the analogy of deception and violence.Joseph Betz - 1985 - Journal of Value Inquiry 19 (3):217-224.
Kants kopernikanisch-newtonische Analogie.Dieter Schönecker, Dennis Schulting & Niko Strobach - 2011 - Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 59 (4):497-518.
Appunti sull'idea di vita tecnica a partire dalla "Kritik der Urteilskraft". Per un’archeologia della tecnica moderna.Emanuele Clarizio - 2014 - Nóema 5 (2).
Kant on analogy.John J. Callanan - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (4):747 – 772.
Post-Established Harmony: Kant and Analogy Reconsidered.Daniel Whistler - 2013 - Sophia 52 (2):235-258.
‘This inscrutable principle of an original organization’: epigenesis and ‘looseness of fit’ in Kant’s philosophy of science.John H. Zammito - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):73-109.
Talking About God: The Concept of Analogy and the Problem of Religious Language.Roger M. White - 2009 - Ashgate.
Were Kant's Hypothetical Imperatives Wide-Scope Oughts?Simon Rippon - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):783-788.
Kant's idealism and the secondary quality analogy.Lucy Allais - 2007 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (3):459-484.
O Pensamento Analógico No Filosofia Transcendental De Kant: Série 2.Joãosinho Beckencamp - 2008 - Kant E-Prints 3:1-13.
Genealogy and Critique in Kant’s Organic History of Reason.Jennifer Mensch - 2015 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1:178-196.
Judgmental Activity and Putative Awareness in Kant's Second Analogy of Experience.Gregg Osborne - 2001 - Dissertation, The University of Chicago
Added to PP
Historical graph of downloads
Citations of this work
Axiomatic Natural Philosophy and the Emergence of Biology as a Science.Hein van den Berg & Boris Demarest - 2020 - Journal of the History of Biology 53 (3):379-422.
Theoretical virtues in eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition.Hein van den Berg - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-35.
On “bright colours” in Kant’s argumentation: analogies, metaphors and thought experiments.Rômulo Eisinger Guimarães - 2022 - Kant E-Prints 16 (3):7-34.
References found in this work
Models and Analogies in Science.Mary Hesse - 1965 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (62):161-163.