Visual perception in Japanese rock garden design

Axiomathes 15 (3):353-371 (2005)

Michael Lyons
Ritsumeikan University
We present an investigation into the relation between design princi- ples in Japanese gardens, and their associated perceptual effects. This leads to the realization that a set of design principles described in a Japanese gardening text by Shingen (1466), shows many parallels to the visual effects of perceptual grouping, studied by the Gestalt school of psychology. Guidelines for composition of rock clusters closely relate to perception of visual figure. Garden design elements are arranged into patterns that simplify figure-ground segmentation, while seemingly balancing the visual salience of subparts and the global arrangement. Visual ‘ground’ is analyzed via medial axis transformation (MAT), often associated with shape perception in humans. MAT analysis reveals implicit structure in the visual ground of a quintessential rock garden design. The MAT structure enables formal com- parison of structure of figure and ground. They share some aesthetic qualities, with interesting differences. Both contain naturalistic asymmetric, self-similar, branching structures. While the branching pattern of the ground converges towards the viewer, that of the figure converges in the opposite direction.
Keywords figure-ground  multi-scale  segmentation  tree structure  visual grouping
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DOI 10.1007/s10516-004-5448-8
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References found in this work BETA

Principles of Gestalt Psychology.Oliver L. Reiser - 1935 - Philosophical Review 45 (4):412-415.
Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms.Max Wertheimer - 1923 - Psycologische Forschung 4:301-350.
Toward a Psychology of Art. Collected Essays.Rudolf Arnheim - 1967 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 26 (1):138-141.

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