Analysis 45 (4):198-199 (1985)
In virtue of its form [‘I am here’] must be true on any occasion on which [it is] asserted, and yet the proposition it expresses on each occasion [is] contingent. (Richmond H. Thomason, ‘Necessity, Quotation, and Truth: an Indexical Theory’, Language in Focus: Foundations, Methods and Systems, ed. by Asa Kasher, D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1976, p. 121) Intuitively, [‘I am here now’] is deeply, and in some sense universally, true. One need only understand the meaning of [it] to know that it cannot be uttered falsely. (David Kaplan, ‘On the Logic of Demonstratives’, Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language, ed. by Peter French, Theodore Uehling Jr. & Howard Wettstein, University of Minnesota Press, 1979, p. 402) The sentence ‘I am here’ has the peculiar property that whenever I utter it, it is bound to be true. Even if I am lost and do not know where I am, I can bravely say ‘I am here’, and know that I am expressing a truth. (Simon Blackburn, Spreading the Word, Oxford University Press, 1984, p. 334)
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Sentence-Relativity and the Necessary a Posteriori.Kai-Yee Wong - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 83 (1):53 - 91.
The Foundations of Kaplan's Direct Reference Theory for Demonstratives.Lawrence D. roberts - 1994 - Philosophia 23 (1-4):91-116.
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