Thinking and Reasoning 11 (4):390 – 410 (2005)
AbstractReasoning requires making inferences based on information gleaned from a set of relations. The relational complexity of a problem increases with the number of relations that must be considered simultaneously to make a correct inference. Previous work (Viskontas, Morrison, Holyoak, Hummel, & Knowlton, 2004) has shown that older adults have difficulty integrating multiple relations during analogical reasoning, especially when required to inhibit irrelevant information. We report two experiments that examined the ability to integrate multiple relations in younger, middle-aged, and older adults performing two other reasoning tasks. These tasks systematically varied relational complexity, and required either inductive reasoning (a version of the Raven's Matrices Task) or transitive inference. Our results show that as people age they have increasing difficulty in solving problems that require them to integrate multiple relations. This difficulty may stem from a decrease in working memory capacity.
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Citations of this work
Two Facets of Cognitive Control in Analogical Mapping: The Role of Semantic Interference Resolution Andgoal-Driven Structure Selection.Anna Chuderska & Adam Chuderski - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (3):352-371.
Planning Following Stroke: A Relational Complexity Approach Using the Tower of London.Glenda Andrews, Graeme S. Halford, Mark Chappell, Annick Maujean & David H. K. Shum - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
No Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns for the Working Memory and Intelligence Relationship.Adam Chuderski, Michał Ociepka & Bartłomiej Kroczek - 2016 - Polish Psychological Bulletin 47 (1):73-80.
The Role of Perceptual Interference, Semantic Interference, and Relational Integration in the Development of Analogical Reasoning.Xiao Yu, Liuna Geng, Yinghe Chen, Congcong Han & Xiaojing Zhu - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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