En Hedu’Anna of Mesopotamia Circa 2300 BCE

In Mary Ellen Waithe & Therese Boos Dykeman (eds.), Women Philosophers from Non-western Traditions: The First Four Thousand Years. Springer Verlag. pp. 19-51 (2023)
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In this Chapter I present early Mesopotamian philosophical views and contrast them to En Hedu’Anna’s account of metaphysics, epistemology, ontology, philosophy of religion and her views on several socio-political issues. Through her writings we see her views of the cosmos, of deities, of women’s nature, gender fluidity, justifications for violence, and other significant concepts. Lastly, I summarize her influence and suggest that her work marks a new dawn, a first, for Philosophy.



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Mary Ellen Waithe
Cleveland State University

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