Defeasible reasoning and informal fallacies

Synthese 179 (3):377 - 407 (2011)

Authors
Douglas Walton
University of Windsor
Abstract
This paper argues that some traditional fallacies should be considered as reasonable arguments when used as part of a properly conducted dialog. It is shown that argumentation schemes, formal dialog models, and profiles of dialog are useful tools for studying properties of defeasible reasoning and fallacies. It is explained how defeasible reasoning of the most common sort can deteriorate into fallacious argumentation in some instances. Conditions are formulated that can be used as normative tools to judge whether a given defeasible argument is fallacious or not. It is shown that three leading violations of proper dialog standards for defeasible reasoning necessary to see how fallacies work are: (a) improper failure to retract a commitment, (b) failure of openness to defeat, and (c) illicit reversal of burden of proof
Keywords Fallacy theory  Argumentation  Argumentation schemes  Formal dialog systems  Burden of proof  Evidence  Profiles of dialog  Artificial intelligence
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DOI 10.1007/s11229-009-9657-y
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References found in this work BETA

Argumentation Schemes.Douglas Walton, Chris Reed & Fabrizio Macagno - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
The Concept of Law.Hla Hart - 1961 - Oxford University Press.
Fallacies.C. L. Hamblin - 1970 - Vale Press.
A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy.Douglas Walton - 2003 - University Alabama Press.

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Citations of this work BETA

The Ethics of Argumentation.Vasco Correia - 2012 - Informal Logic 32 (2):222-241.
Are Fallacies Vices?Andrew Ball - 2016 - Topoi 35 (2):423-429.
Biases and Fallacies.Vasco Correia - 2011 - Cogency: Journal of Reasoning and Argumentation 3 (1):107-126.

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