Sextus Empiricus' Fourth Conditional and Containment Logic

History and Philosophy of Logic 40 (4):307-322 (2019)
  Copy   BIBTEX


In his Outlines of Pyrrhonism 2.110–113, Sextus Empiricus presents four different accounts of the conditional, presumably all from the Hellenistic period, in increasing logical strength. While the interpretation and provenance of the first three accounts is relatively secure, the fourth account has perplexed and frustrated interpreters for decades or longer. Most interpreters have ultimately taken a dismissive attitude towards the fourth account and discounted it as being of both little historical and logical interest. We argue that this attitude is unwarranted and demonstrate that the conditional expressed in the fourth account can profitably be understood as a precursor of analytic entailment, familiar from containment logics such as those developed by Parry and Angell. Exploiting recent work by Fine, we present a formal truthmaker semantics for this conditional and show how it sheds light on a number of longstanding issues in the interpretation of this passage.



    Upload a copy of this work     Papers currently archived: 94,659

External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

Similar books and articles

The Fourth Account of Conditionals in Sextus Empiricus.Michael J. White - 1986 - History and Philosophy of Logic 7 (1):1-14.
Pyrrhonism and the Dialectical Methods.Justin Vlasits - 2020 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 23 (1):225-252.
Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Scepticism.Julia Annas & Jonathan Barnes (eds.) - 1994 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
Intuitionistic Conditional Logics.Ivano Ciardelli & Xinghan Liu - 2020 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 49 (4):807-832.
Agrippan Problems.Robb Dunphy - 2020 - Logos and Episteme 11 (3):259-282.
How (Not) To Read Sextus Empiricus.Roger E. Eichorn - 2014 - Ancient Philosophy 34 (1):121-149.
Truthmaker Semantics for Epistemic Logic.Peter Hawke & Aybüke Özgün - 2023 - In Federico L. G. Faroldi & Frederik Van De Putte (eds.), Kit Fine on Truthmakers, Relevance, and Non-classical Logic. Springer Verlag. pp. 295-335.
From Proto-Sceptic to Sceptic in Sextus’ Outlines of Pyrrhonism.Robb Dunphy - 2022 - Apeiron: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 55 (3):455-484.


Added to PP

52 (#303,475)

6 months
16 (#218,813)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

Author's Profile

Yale Weiss
CUNY Graduate Center

Citations of this work

If P, Then P!Matthew Mandelkern - 2021 - Journal of Philosophy 118 (12):645-679.
Pure Variable Inclusion Logics.Francesco Paoli, Michele Pra Baldi & Damian Szmuc - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1-22.

Add more citations

References found in this work

The Development of Logic.William Kneale & Martha Kneale - 1962 - Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. Edited by Martha Kneale.
Angellic Content.Kit Fine - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (2):199-226.
A Theory of Truthmaker Content I: Conjunction, Disjunction and Negation.Kit Fine - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (6):625-674.
The Development of Logic.William Kneale & Martha Kneale - 1962 - Studia Logica 15:308-310.

View all 28 references / Add more references