In Roger Crisp (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 167-183 (2013)

Thomas Williams
University of South Florida
It is somewhat misleading to think of the Franciscans as forming a “school” in ethics, since there was a fair bit of diversity among Franciscans. Nonetheless, one can identify certain characteristic tendencies of Franciscan moral thought, and certain “celebrity” Franciscans whose views in ethics and moral psychology are particularly noteworthy. I shall first offer an overview of the general character of Franciscan moral thought in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries and then turn to a more detailed examination of the thought of John Duns Scotus (1265/66-1308) and William Ockham (c. 1288-1347) on three central matters of debate: the nature of the virtues, the relationship between intellect and will, and the relationship between moral requirements and the divine will.
Keywords Franciscan ethics  John Duns Scotus  Williams Ockham  virtue  intellect  will  voluntarism  divine command theory  freedom
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DOI 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199545971.013.0009
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