Philosophia 38 (1):107-129 (2010)

Abstract
This paper takes a conceptual look at cosmopolitanism and the related issue of what it means to be human in order to arrive at an alternative conceptual framework which is free from empiricist assumptions. With reference to a discussion on Homer’s Iliad , the author develops a ‘humanist’ model of discerning humanity. This model is then compared and contrasted with Martha Nussbaum’s version of cosmopolitanism. The notion of ‘aspect-seeing’ discussed by Wittgenstein in the second part of the Philosophical Investigations is also examined in order to shed light on what it involves to discern humanity. Finally, racism is discussed from the philosophical perspective elaborated in order to highlight its distinctive conceptual features. It is hoped that this paper can refocus our attention on important issues concerning the basis of what it means to see human beings as human beings.
Keywords Cosmopolitanism  Empiricism  Homer  Nussbaum  Wittgenstein  Racism
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DOI 10.1007/s11406-009-9185-5
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Eating Meat and Eating People.Cora Diamond - 1978 - Philosophy 53 (206):465 - 479.
The Heart of Racism.J. L. A. Garcia - 1996 - Journal of Social Philosophy 27 (1):5-46.
On Personality.Peter Goldie - 2004 - Routledge.

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