Foundations of Physics 30 (2):253-285 (2000)

Abstract
The special and general relativity theories are used to demonstrate that the velocity of an unradiative particle in a Schwarzschild metric background, and in an electrostatic field, is the group velocity of a wave that we call a “particle wave,” which is a monochromatic solution of a standard equation of wave motion and possesses the following properties. It generalizes the de Broglie wave. The rays of a particle wave are the possible particle trajectories, and the motion equation of a particle can be obtained from the ray equation. The standing particle wave equation generalizes the Schrödinger equation of wave amplitudes. The particle wave motion equation generalizes the Klein–Gordon equation; this result enables us to analyze the essence of the particle wave frequency. The equation of the eikonal of a particle wave generalizes the Hamilton–Jacobi equation; this result enables us to deduce the general expression for the linear momentum. The Heisenberg uncertainty relation expresses the diffraction of the particle wave, and the uncertainty relation connecting the particle instant of presence and energy results from the fact that the group velocity of the particle wave is the particle velocity. A single classical particle may be considered as constituted of geometrical particle wave; reciprocally, a geometrical particle wave may be considered as constituted of classical particles. The expression for a particle wave and the motion equation of the particle wave remain valid when the particle mass is zero. In that case, the particle is a photon, the particle wave is a component a classical electromagnetic wave that is embedded in a Schwarzschild metric background, and the motion equation of the wave particle is the motion equation of an electromagnetic wave in a Schwarzschild metric background. It follows that a particle wave possesses the same physical reality as a classical electromagnetic wave. This last result and the fact that the particle velocity is the group velocity of its wave are in accordance with the opinions of de Broglie and of Schrödinger. We extend these results to the particle subjected to any static field of forces in any gravitational metric background. Therefore we have achieved a synthesis of undulatory mechanics, classical electromagnetism, and gravitation for the case where the field of forces and the gravitational metric background are static, and this synthesis is based only on special and general relativity
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DOI 10.1023/A:1003645000826
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