A direct proof of the equivalence of free categorial grammars and simple phrase structure grammars

Studia Logica 37 (1):41 - 57 (1978)
In [2], Bar-Hillel, Gaifman, and Shamir prove that the simple phrase structure grammars (SPGs) defined by Chomsky are equivalent in a certain sense to Bar-Hillel's bidirectional categorial grammars (BCGs). On the other hand, Cohen [3] proves the equivalence of the latter ones to what the calls free categorial grammars (FCGs). They are closely related to Lambek's syntactic calculus which, in turn, is based on the idea due to Ajdukiewicz [1]. For the reasons which will be discussed in the last section, Cohen's proof seems to be at least incomplete. This paper yields a direct proof of the equivalence ofFCGs andSPGs.
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Maciej Kandulski (1988). The Equivalence of Nonassociative Lambek Categorial Grammars and Context-Free Grammars. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 34 (1):41-52.
Wojciech Zielonka (1981). Axiomatizability of Ajdukiewicz-Lambek Calculus by Means of Cancellation Schemes. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 27 (13-14):215-224.

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