Synthese 91 (1-2):111 - 133 (1992)
Hierarchical organization is an essential characteristic of living things. Although most biologists affirm the concept of living things as hierarchically organized structures, there are widespread differences of interpretation in the meaning of hierarchy and of how the concept of hierarchy applies to living things. One such basic difference involves the distinction between the concept of control hierarchy and classification hierarchy. It is suggested that control hierarchies are distinguished from classification hierarchies in that while the former involve authority relationships between levels, the latter do not. This is illustrated in an analysis of proposed hierarchies of replicators and interactors.The analysis of levels of hierarchies and their relationships also brings up the part-whole problem. An authority relationship between levels implies that the whole has a determining influence on the parts that make up the whole, and that parts have no independent, meaningful existence apart from the whole. The concept of an authority relationship in a part-whole relationship introduces the question of the independence or sovereignty of the components of the subordinate levels in a hierarchically organized living thing. This problem is discussed along with an analysis of the rather novel theory of enkapsis proposed by H. Dooyeweerd, in which he distinguishes part-whole relationships from enkaptic relationships.
|Keywords||No keywords specified (fix it)|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
References found in this work BETA
Downward Causation.Donald T. Campbell - 1974 - In F. Ayala & T. Dobzhansky (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. University of California Press. pp. 179--186.
Introduction to Systems Philosophy: Toward a New Paradigm of Contemporary Thought.Ervin Laszlo - 1972 - Gordon & Breach.
Beyond Reductionism: New Perspectives in the Life Sciences.Arthur Koestler & John R. Smythies (eds.) - 1969 - London: Hutchinson.
Citations of this work BETA
Rethinking Woodger's Legacy in the Philosophy of Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson & Richard Gawne - 2014 - Journal of the History of Biology 47 (2):243-292.
Individuals at the Center of Biology: Rudolf Leuckart’s Polymorphismus der Individuen and the Ongoing Narrative of Parts and Wholes. With an Annotated Translation.Lynn K. Nyhart & Scott Lidgard - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):373-443.
Intelligent-Design Theory: An Argument for Biotic Laws.Zylstra Uko - 2004 - Zygon 39 (1):175-191.
Individuals at the Center of Biology: Rudolf Leuckart's "Polymorphismus der Individuen" and the Ongoing Narrative of Parts and Wholes. With an Annotated Translation. [REVIEW]Lynn K. Nyhart & Scott Lidgard - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):373 - 443.
Cooperation and Emergence: The Missing Elements of the Darwin Machine.Jason Grotuss - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):426.
Similar books and articles
A Constant of Temporal Structure in the Human Hierarchy and Other Systems.Peter W. Barlow - 1992 - Acta Biotheoretica 40 (4):321-328.
Mind as a Nested Operational Architectonics of the Brain.Andrew A. Fingelkurts & Alexander A. Fingelkurts - 2012 - Physics of Life Reviews 9 (1):49-50.
Hierarchical Ordering in Plant Morphology.Robert W. Korn - 1994 - Acta Biotheoretica 42 (4):227-244.
What is Structural Similarity and is It Greater in Living Things?Keith R. Laws - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):486-487.
Criteria for an Effective Theory of Consciousness and Some Preliminary Attempts.Ron Sun - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (2):268-301.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads43 ( #115,580 of 2,146,888 )
Recent downloads (6 months)15 ( #43,231 of 2,146,888 )
How can I increase my downloads?
There are no threads in this forum
Nothing in this forum yet.