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May 17th 2021 GMT
volume 112, issue 1, 2020
  1. De verhouding tussen geleefd lichaam en lichaam als ding.Maarten Coolen
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  2. Normaal versus abnormaal, typisch versus atypisch : Statistiek en de fenomenologie van atypisch gedragsmatig functioneren.Kristien Hens
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  3. Nietzsches Lof van de Abnormaliteit.Janske Hermens
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  4. Fenomenologie van Ziekte En Abnormaliteit.Jenny Slatman
    Phenomenology of illness and abnormalityHabitually, illness or disease is considered as something abnormal. Therefore, the distinction between health/illness is often conflated with the distinction normal/abnormal. Inspired by Kurt Goldstein’s work, Merleau-Ponty makes clear, however, that abnormality does not automatically coincide with pathology. It is also interesting to note that Merleau-Ponty nowhere uses the term “abnormal” to indicate the opposite of the normal person. Similar to Georges Canguilhem he uses the pair “the normal ” ‐ “the sick person”, “the pathological”. As (...)
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  5. Repliek.Jenny Slatman
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  6. Hippocrates een handje helpen.Nicole van Voorst Vader-Bours
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  7. Welke Ander? Welke Blik? Over Het Tweede Persoonsperspectief.Veronica Vasterling
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  8. Normaliteit of de stilte van de (lichamelijke) ervaring.Maren Wehrle
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volume 113, issue 1, 2021
  1. Klaas van Berkel en Carmen van Bruggen (2020). Academische Vrijheid. Geschiedenis en actualiteit.Roland den Boef
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  2. Who’s the Greatest of Them All? : Een Niet-Technische Uiteenzetting van de Methode van Newtons Principia Vergezeld van Enige Reflecties van Wetenschapsfilosofische Aard.Steffen Ducheyne
    Who’s the greatest of them all? A non-technical explication of Newton’s method in the Principia accompanied by some philosophical reflectionsIn this essay, I seek to explicate the methodology which Newton used in the Principia in a non-technical way. Close attention will be paid to some important results in Books I and III of the Principia and to Newton’s argument for universal gravitation. Based on their discussion, Newton’s key inferential strategies will be brought to the fore. In addition, it will be (...)
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  3. Beloften En Teleurstellingen van Artificiële Intelligentie Voor Wetenschappelijke Ontdekkingen.Albrecht Heeffer
    Promises and disappointments of artificial intelligence for scientific discoveryRecent successes within Artificial Intelligence with deep learning techniques in board games gave rise to the ambition to apply these learning methods to scientific discovery. This model for discovering new scientific laws is based on data-driven generalization in large databases with observational data using neural networks. In this study we want to review and critical assess an earlier research programme by the name of BACON. Though BACON was based on different AI technology, (...)
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  4. Gregor Mendel, Thomas Hunt Morgan En Experimenten in de Klassieke Genetica.Bert Leuridan
    Gregor Mendel, Thomas Hunt Morgan and experiments in classical geneticsIn the middle of the 19th century, Gregor Mendel performed a series of crosses with pea plants to investigate how hybrids are formed. Decades later, Thomas Hunt Morgan finalized the theory of classical genetics. An important aspect of Mendel’s and Morgan’s scientific approach is that they worked in a systematic, experimental fashion. But how did these experiments proceed? What is the relation between these experiments and Mendel’s and Morgan’s explanatory theories? What (...)
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  5. Hoe Zeker is Heisenbergs Onzekerheidsprincipe?Jeanne Peijnenburg & David Atkinson
    How certain is Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle?Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is at the heart of the orthodox or Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. We first sketch the history that led up to the formulation of the principle. Then we recall that there are in fact two uncertainty principles, both dating from 1927, one by Werner Heisenberg and one by Earle Kennard. Finally, we explain that recent work in physics gives reason to believe that the principle of Heisenberg is invalid, while that of (...)
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  6. Marlies De Munck (2019). De vlucht van de nachtegaal. Een filosofisch pleidooi voor de muzikant.Tomas Serrien
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  7. Hoe Galileo Galilei de Valwet Ontdekte, En Het Verschil Dat Dit Maakt.Maarten Van Dyck
    How Galileo Galilei discovered the law of fall, and the difference that this makesGalileo’s law of fall is one of the crucial building blocks of classical mechanics. The question how this law was discovered has often been a topic of debate. This article offers a reconstruction of the developments within Galileo’s research that led to the discovery of the law. This reconstruction is offered to make a philosophical point regarding the epistemic status of experimental results: Galileo’s experiments can offer sufficient (...)
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  8. Kurt Gödels Onvolledigheidsstellingen En de Grenzen van de Kennis.Jean Paul Van Bendegem
    Kurt Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and the limits of knowledgeIn this paper a presentation is given of Kurt Gödel’s pathbreaking results on the incompleteness of formal arithmetic. Some biographical details are provided but the main focus is on the analysis of the theorems themselves. An intermediate level between informal and formal has been sought that allows the reader to get a sufficient taste of the technicalities involved and not lose sight of the philosophical importance of the results. Connections are established with (...)
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  9. Alfred Wegeners Theorie van Continentendrift En Haar Rivalen : Rationele Onenigheid En Rationele Consensus in de Aardwetenschappen.Erik Weber
    Alfred Wegener’s Theory of Continental Drift and its Rivals. Rational Disagreement and Rational Consensus in the Earth SciencesAlfred Wegener launched the idea of continental drift early in the 20th century. In the period 1915-1930 he did not succeed to convince his fellow earth scientist to leave behind their old permanentist or contractionist theories and adopt his new theory. In the second half of the 20th century ‐ between 1960 and 1975 ‐ continental drift quickly became the dominant theory in the (...)
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  10. Redactioneel.Erik Weber & Inge De Bal
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volume 35, issue 2, 2021
  1.  4
    “Those are Your Words, Not Mine!” Defence Strategies for Denying Speaker Commitment.Ronny Boogaart, Henrike Jansen & Maarten van Leeuwen
    In response to an accusation of having said something inappropriate, the accused may exploit the difference between the explicit contents of their utterance and its implicatures. Widely discussed in the pragmatics literature are those cases in which arguers accept accountability only for the explicit contents of what they said while denying commitment to the implicature. In this paper, we sketch a fuller picture of commitment denial. We do so, first, by including in our discussion not just denial of implicatures, but (...)
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  2.  8
    The Legitimacy Crisis of Arguments from Expert Opinion: Can’t We Trust Experts?Yanlin Liao
    Recent disputes :57–79, 2013; Mizrahi in Inform Logic 36:238–252, 2016; Mizrahi in Argumentation 32:175–195, 2018; Seidel in Inform Logic 34:192–218, 2014; Seidel in Inform Logic 36:253–264, 2016; Hinton in Inform Logic 35:539–554, 2015) on the strength of arguments from expert opinion give rise to a potential legitimacy crisis of it. Mizrahi :57–79, 2013; Inform Logic 36:238–252; Argumentation 32:175–195, 2018) claims that AEO are weak arguments by presenting two independent arguments. The first argument is that AEO are weak arguments because empirical (...)
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  3.  4
    Argument, Inference, and Persuasion.Matthew William McKeon
    This paper distinguishes between two types of persuasive force arguments can have in terms of two different connections between arguments and inferences. First, borrowing from Pinto, an arguer's invitation to inference directly persuades an addressee if the addressee performs an inference that the arguer invites. This raises the question of how invited inferences are determined by an invitation to inference. Second, borrowing from Sorenson, an arguer's invitation to inference indirectly persuades an addressee if the addressee performs an inference guided by (...)
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  4.  1
    Pragma-Dialectical Reconstruction of Crisis Diary-Writing as a Communicative Activity Type.Iva Svačinová
    This paper concerns the character of argumentation in inner dialogue, i.e. dialogue that an individual keeps to herself in her own mind. The problem of inner dialogue research is the methodological difficulty connected with its externalization. In the text, the activity of crisis diary-writing is suggested as a way of naturally externalizing inner decision-making. By adopting a pragma-dialectic approach to argumentation, the text attempts to characterize crisis diary-writing as an argumentative activity type. The argumentative characterization of crisis diary-writing involves identifying (...)
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volume 29, issue 2, 2021
  1.  9
    Legal requirements on explainability in machine learning.Adrien Bibal, Michael Lognoul, Alexandre de Streel & Benoît Frénay
    Deep learning and other black-box models are becoming more and more popular today. Despite their high performance, they may not be accepted ethically or legally because of their lack of explainability. This paper presents the increasing number of legal requirements on machine learning model interpretability and explainability in the context of private and public decision making. It then explains how those legal requirements can be implemented into machine-learning models and concludes with a call for more inter-disciplinary research on explainability.
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  2.  3
    The Promise and Pitfall of Automated Text-Scaling Techniques for the Analysis of Jurisprudential Change.Arthur Dyevre
    I consider the potential of eight text-scaling methods for the analysis of jurisprudential change. I use a small corpus of well-documented German Federal Constitutional Court opinions on European integration to compare the machine-generated scores to scholarly accounts of the case law and legal expert ratings. Naive Bayes, Word2Vec, Correspondence Analysis and Latent Semantic Analysis appear to perform well. Less convincing are the performance of Wordscores, ML Affinity and lexicon-based sentiment analysis. While both the high-dimensionality of judicial texts and the validation (...)
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  3.  3
    Modifying the reason model.John Horty
    In previous work, I showed how the “reason model” of precedential constraint could naturally be generalized from the standard setting in which it was first developed to a richer setting in which dimensional information is represented as well. Surprisingly, it then turned out that, in this new dimensional setting, the reason model of constraint collapsed into the “result model,” which supports only a fortiori reasoning. The purpose of this note is to suggest a modification of the reason model of constraint (...)
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  4.  3
    Populating legal ontologies using semantic role labeling.Llio Humphreys, Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, Livio Robaldo, Luigi Di Caro, Sepideh Ghanavati & Robert Muthuri
    This article seeks to address the problem of the ‘resource consumption bottleneck’ of creating legal semantic technologies manually. It describes a semantic role labeling based information extraction system to extract definitions and norms from legislation and represent them as structured norms in legal ontologies. The output is intended to help make laws more accessible, understandable, and searchable in a legal document management system.
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  5.  8
    Evaluating causes of algorithmic bias in juvenile criminal recidivism.Marius Miron, Songül Tolan, Emilia Gómez & Carlos Castillo
    In this paper we investigate risk prediction of criminal re-offense among juvenile defendants using general-purpose machine learning algorithms. We show that in our dataset, containing hundreds of cases, ML models achieve better predictive power than a structured professional risk assessment tool, the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth, at the expense of not satisfying relevant group fairness metrics that SAVRY does satisfy. We explore in more detail two possible causes of this algorithmic bias that are related to biases in (...)
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volume 86, issue 3, 2021
  1. Two Theories of Transparency.Edward W. Averill & Joseph Gottlieb
    Perceptual experience is often said to be transparent; that is, when we have a perceptual experience we seem to be aware of properties of the objects around us, and never seem to be aware of properties of the experience itself. This is a introspective fact. It is also often said that we can infer a metaphysical fact from this introspective fact, e.g. a fact about the nature of perceptual experience. A transparency theory fills in the details for these two facts, (...)
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  2.  55
    What Should we Believe About Free Will?Jeremy Byrd
    Given the available evidence, I argue that we face considerable uncertainty about free will. In particular, I argue that the available philosophical evidence does not support being highly confident in our theories about the nature of free will, though this does not necessarily mean that we should suspend judgment about either incompatibilism or compatibilism. For those who accept incompatibilism, however, I argue that there is enough uncertainty about libertarian free will that they should suspend judgment about whether we are ever (...)
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  3.  28
    Token-Distinctness and the Disjunctive Strategy.Ranpal Dosanjh
    According to the Multiple Realizability Argument, a higher-level property typically has many physical realizers, so it cannot be type-identical to any one of them. This enables the non-reductive physicalist to claim that some higher-level properties are type-distinct from physical properties. The reductive physicalist can counter with the Disjunctive Strategy: nothing prevents us from type-identifying the higher-level property with the disjunction of its realizers. Developing a powers-based ontology of properties, Shoemaker and Wilson present responses to the Disjunctive Strategy, wherein higher-level property (...)
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  4.  24
    Doxastic Deontology and Cognitive Competence.Gábor Forrai
    The paper challenges William Alston’s argument against doxastic deontology, the view that we have epistemic duties concerning our beliefs. The core of the argument is that doxastic deontology requires voluntary control over our beliefs, which we do not have. The idea that doxastic deontology requires voluntary control is supposed to follow from the principle that ought implies can. The paper argues that this is wrong: in the OIC principle which regulates our doxastic duties the “can” does not stand for the (...)
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  5. The Identity Theory of Powers Revised.Joaquim Giannotti
    Dispositionality and qualitativity are key notions to describe the world that we inhabit. Dispositionality is a matter of what a thing is disposed to do in certain circumstances. Qualitativity is a matter of how a thing is like. According to the Identity Theory of powers, every fundamental property is at once dispositional and qualitative, or a powerful quality. Canonically, the Identity Theory holds a contentious identity claim between a property’s dispositionality and its qualitativity. In the literature, this view faces a (...)
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  6.  47
    Timothy Williamson’s Coin-Flipping Argument: Refuted Prior to Publication?Colin Howson
    In a well-known paper, Timothy Williamson claimed to prove with a coin-flipping example that infinitesimal-valued probabilities cannot save the principle of Regularity, because on pain of inconsistency the event ‘all tosses land heads’ must be assigned probability 0, whether the probability function is hyperreal-valued or not. A premise of Williamson’s argument is that two infinitary events in that example must be assigned the same probability because they are isomorphic. It was argued by Howson that the claim of isomorphism fails, but (...)
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  7.  25
    Moore’s Paradox: An Evansian Account.Hongwoo Kwon
    In this paper, I develop and defend a novel account of Moore’s paradox, which locates its source in self-reference. The main insight comes from Gareth Evans’s discussion of Transparency, which says that a normal person takes p to be directly relevant to the truth of “I believe that p.” It has been noticed by many philosophers that Moore’s paradox is closely related to Evans’s Transparency. However, Evans’s claim that Transparency is constitutively related to self-reference has received relatively little attention from (...)
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  8.  34
    Moral Fixed Points, Rationality and the ‘Why Be Moral?’ Question.Christos Kyriacou
    Cuneo and Shafer-Landau have argued that there are moral conceptual truths that are substantive and non-vacuous in content, what they called ‘moral fixed points’. If the moral proposition ‘torturing kids for fun is pro tanto wrong’ is such a conceptual truth, it is because the essence of ‘wrong’ necessarily satisfies and applies to the substantive content of ‘torturing kids for fun’. In critique, Killoren :165–173, 2016) has revisited the old skeptical ‘why be moral?’ question and argued that the moral fixed (...)
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  9.  54
    Three Varieties of Growing Block Theory.Katarina Perović
    Growing Block theorists are committed, roughly, to two theses: that past and present events exist and that future events do not, and that the present is dynamic and constantly changing. These two theses support a picture of the universe as growing, gaining in more and more things and events, as these recede into the past; but the two theses do not specify how the growth of the block is to be understood ; what status the past is supposed to have (...)
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  10.  30
    The Counterfactual Structure of the Consequence Argument.Stefan Rummens
    This paper revisits a well-known rebuttal of Peter van Inwagen’s consequence argument. This CS-rebuttal, as I shall call it, focuses on the counterfactual structure of alternative possibilities. It shows that the ability to do otherwise is such that if the agent had exercised it, the distant past and/or the laws of nature would have been different. On the counterfactual scenario, there is, therefore, no need for the agent to exercise an ability to change the past or the laws of nature. (...)
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  11. The Logic of Fast and Slow Thinking.Anthia Solaki, Francesco Berto & Sonja Smets
    We present a framework for epistemic logic, modeling the logical aspects of System 1 and System 2 cognitive processes, as per dual process theories of reasoning. The framework combines non-normal worlds semantics with the techniques of Dynamic Epistemic Logic. It models non-logically-omniscient, but moderately rational agents: their System 1 makes fast sense of incoming information by integrating it on the basis of their background knowledge and beliefs. Their System 2 allows them to slowly, step-wise unpack some of the logical consequences (...)
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  12. Dualism and Exclusion.Bram Vaassen
    Many philosophers argue that exclusion arguments cannot exclude non-reductionist physicalist mental properties from being causes without excluding properties that are patently causal as well. List and Stoljar :96–108, 2017) recently argued that a similar response to exclusion arguments is also available to dualists, thereby challenging the predominant view that exclusion arguments undermine dualist theories of mind. In particular, List and Stoljar maintain that exclusion arguments against dualism require a premise that states that, if a property is metaphysically distinct from the (...)
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  13.  24
    A Note on Lange on Contingent Necessity-Makers.Nathan Wildman
    Lange has argued that contingencies lack the modal strength to be necessity-makers. Here, I argue that Lange’s case turns upon a faulty premise, and that there is no obvious fixes he might pursue. The general upshot is that his argument gives us no reason to think that contingencies could not be necessity-makers after all.
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  14. Causal Decision Theory is Safe from Psychopaths.Timothy Luke Williamson
    Until recently, many philosophers took Causal Decision Theory to be more successful than its rival, Evidential Decision Theory. Things have changed, however, with a renewed concern that cases involving an extreme form of decision instability are counterexamples to CDT :392–403, 1984; Egan in Philos Rev 116:93–114, 2007). Most prominent among those cases of extreme decision instability is the Psychopath Button, due to Andy Egan; in that case, CDT recommends a seemingly absurd act that almost certainly results in your death. This (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. Is It Time for Robot Rights? Moral Status in Artificial Entities.Vincent C. Müller
    Some authors have recently suggested that it is time to consider rights for robots. These suggestions are based on the claim that the question of robot rights should not depend on a standard set of conditions for ‘moral status’; but instead, the question is to be framed in a new way, by rejecting the is/ought distinction, making a relational turn, or assuming a methodological behaviourism. We try to clarify these suggestions and to show their highly problematic consequences. While we find (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. The Real Problem of Pure Reason.T. A. Pendlebury
    The problem of Kant's first Critique is the problem of pure reason: how are synthetic judgments possible a priori? Many of his readers have believed that the problem depends upon a delimitation within the class of a priori truths of a class of irreducibly synthetic truths—a delimitation whose possibility is doubtful—because absent this it is not excluded that all a priori truths are analytic. I argue, on the contrary, that the problem depends on nothing more than the human knower's everyday (...)
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volume 51, issue 3, 2021
  1.  13
    In Praise of Clausius Entropy: Reassessing the Foundations of Boltzmannian Statistical Mechanics.Christopher Gregory Weaver
    I will argue, pace a great many of my contemporaries, that there's something right about Boltzmann's attempt to ground the second law of thermodynamics in a suitably amended deterministic time-reversal invariant classical dynamics, and that in order to appreciate what's right about (what was at least at one time) Boltzmann's explanatory project, one has to fully apprehend the nature of microphysical causal structure, time-reversal invariance, and the relationship between Boltzmann entropy and the work of Rudolf Clausius.
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volume 12, issue , 2021
  1. Visual Perception and the Emergence of Minimal Representation.Argyris Arnellos & Alvaro Moreno
    There is a long-lasting quest of demarcating a minimally representational behavior. Based on neurophysiologically-informed behavioral studies, we argue in detail that one of the simplest cases of organismic behavior based on low-resolution spatial vision–the visually-guided obstacle avoidance in the cubozoan medusa Tripedalia cystophora–implies already a minimal form of representation. We further argue that the characteristics and properties of this form of constancy-employing structural representation distinguish it substantially from putative representational states associated with mere sensory indicators, and we reply to some (...)
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forthcoming articles
  1. The Force of Presentation: Policing Modes of Expression and Gatekeeping the Status Quo.Elly Vintiadis
    Today the way philosophical work is presented is very narrowly circumscribed and as a result, this excludes people who do not want to, or cannot effectively, present their work in a particular manner. This canonization of the mode of presentation of philosophical work also serves to maintain the status quo of analytic philosophy as an exclusively academic discipline. In this paper I argue that diversity in how philosophical thinking is presented should be allowed, and even, encouraged. I argue that it (...)
     
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volume 89, issue 3, 2021
  1.  16
    The problem of arbitrary requirements: an abrahamic perspective.Sara Aronowitz, Marilie Coetsee & Amir Saemi
    Some religious requirements seem genuinely arbitrary in the sense that there seem to be no sufficient explanation of why those requirements with those contents should pertain. This paper aims to understand exactly what it might mean for a religious requirement to be genuinely arbitrary and to discern whether and how a religious practitioner could ever be rational in obeying such a requirement. We lay out four accounts of what such arbitrariness could consist in, and show how each account provides a (...)
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