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Feb 27th 2024 GMT
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  1. Curable and Incurable Vice in Aristotle.Eric Solis
    I argue that central to Aristotle’s account of vice is a distinction between two varieties of vicious person: those for whom character change is possible (the curable), and those for whom it is not (the incurable). Recognizing this distinction and drawing out the ideas that ground it shows why Aristotle’s discussions of vice in EN vii and ix 4 are not inconsistent.
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  1. On the Irreducibility of Attitudinal Imagining.Alon Chasid
    This paper argues against the view, proposed in Langland-Hassan (2020), that attitudinal imaginings are reducible to basic folk-psychological attitudes such as judgments, beliefs, desires, decisions, or combinations thereof. The proposed reduction fails because attitudinal imaginings, though similar to basic attitudes in certain respects, function differently than basic attitudes. I demonstrate this by exploring two types of cases: spontaneous imaginings, and imaginings that arise in response to fiction, showing that in these cases, imaginings cannot be identified with basic attitudes. I conclude (...)
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  1. Educational Pacifism and Montessori.Nicholas Parkin
    Education – typically and rightly held to be an incontrovertible good – has for some time now been dominated by mass formal schooling systems. These systems routinely harm and oppress many students. I argue that they do so impermissibly, and I call this stance “educational pacifism”. I propose that Maria Montessori’s views on mass formal schooling systems broadly align with educational pacifism and that, therefore, she can be considered an educational pacifist. Finally, I claim that contemporary Montessorians ought to be (...)
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volume 20, issue 1, 2023
  1. Pacifism and Educational Violence.Nicholas Parkin
    Education systems are full of harmful violence of types often unrecognised or misunderstood by educators, education leaders, and bureaucrats. Educational violence harms a great number of innocent persons (those who, morally speaking, may not be justifiably harmed). Accordingly, this paper rejects educational violence used to achieve educational ends. It holds that educational violence is unjustified if the condition that innocent persons are harmed is satisfied, that this condition is satisfied in current educational practice (compulsory schooling), and that, therefore, the current (...)
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  1.  10
    ¿Más es diferente, o es más de lo mismo? Introducción al debate contemporáneo sobre emergencia y reduccionismo.Aldo Filomeno, Carlos Romero & José Jerez
    Como introducción al monográfico sobre reduccionismo y emergencia brindamos aquí un contexto teórico al debate contemporáneo. Hablaremos primero del acercamiento naturalista en filosofía (§2), así como de dos de las características más importantes de la emergencia: autonomía y universalidad (§3). Finalmente, basándonos en la literatura contemporánea (principalmente en Patricia Palacios y Jessica Wilson, además de Mario Bunge y Alicia Juarrero) presentamos algunas de las definiciones y distinciones más importantes para entender mejor el debate sobre la emergencia (§4).
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Feb 26th 2024 GMT
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  1. Parents as secondary patients: Towards a more family-centred approach to care.Johanna Https://Orcidorg Eichinger, Bernice Elger, Tian Yi Jiao, Insa Koné & David Martin Shaw
    The definition of ‘patient’ is commonly taken for granted and considered as obvious, but the term is rather underconceptualised in the literature. In this paper, it will be argued that the criterion of suffering can be considered a sufficient criterion for a parent to be considered a secondary patient when their seriously ill child is receiving medical care (i.e. not necessarily the parents themselves) – these parents are sufferers in virtue of the suffering of others. The nature of parental and (...)
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volume 72, issue 1, 2024
  1.  3
    What Influence Could the Acceptance of Visitors Cause on the Epidemic Dynamics of a Reinfectious Disease?: A Mathematical Model.Ying Xie, Ishfaq Ahmad, ThankGod I. S. Ikpe, Elza F. Sofia & Hiromi Seno
    The globalization in business and tourism becomes crucial more and more for the economical sustainability of local communities. In the presence of an epidemic outbreak, there must be such a decision on the policy by the host community as whether to accept visitors or not, the number of acceptable visitors, or the condition for acceptable visitors. Making use of an SIRI type of mathematical model, we consider the influence of visitors on the spread of a reinfectious disease in a community, (...)
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volume 1, issue ?, 2024
  1. Paraconsistency, Evidence and Semantic Incompleteness.Edson Bezerra
    In this paper, we argue that the systems Basic Logic of Evidence (BLE) and Logic of Evidence and Truth (LETJ) suffer a kind of semantic incompleteness with respect to the informal notion of evidence. More especifically, we argue that the connective o of the logic LETJ fails to validate intuitive principles about conclusive evidence.
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  1. Probability and the Open Future.Sam Baron
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  2. The Inbetweeners: On Theories of Language Neither Ideal nor Non-Ideal.Eliot Michaelson
    Jessica Keiser’s Non-Ideal Foundations of Language is a serious, sustained attempt to engage in systematic philosophy of language while leaving aside some of th.
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  3. Modality and the Future.Dilip Ninan
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  1.  2
    On the extendability to $$\mathbf {\Pi }_3^0$$ ideals and Katětov order.Jialiang He, Jintao Luo & Shuguo Zhang
    We show that there is a $$ \varvec{\Sigma }_4^0$$ ideal such that it’s neither extendable to any $$ \varvec{\Pi }_3^0$$ ideal nor above the ideal $$ \textrm{Fin}\times \textrm{Fin} $$ in the sense of Katětov order, answering a question from M. Hrušák.
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volume 14, issue 3, 2024
  1. Tactile Vision and Othering: Ethnographic Engagements and Racial Differentiations in 19th Century Travelogues.Jules Sebastian Skutta
    The transmission, emergence, and dissemination of features of racial differentiation are based on the interplay of different sensory perceptions, as this contribution will illustrate. For this purpose, examples from ethnographic travelogues from German East Africa and from the time of German colonial rule were selected to examine the functioning of tactile perception by means of the descriptions of skin colors and skin decorations. The source material reveals multisensuality in the form of synesthesia of the sense of sight with the sense (...)
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  1.  2
    Epistemic misalignments in microbiome research.Federico Boem & Javier Suárez
    We argue that microbiome research should be more reflective on the methods that it relies on to build its datasets due to the danger of facing a methodological problem which we call “epistemic misalignment.” An epistemic misalignment occurs when the method used to answer specific scientific questions does not track justified answers, due to the material constraints imposed by the very method. For example, relying on 16S rRNA to answer questions about the function of the microbiome generates epistemic misalignments, due (...)
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volume 46, issue 3, 2024
  1.  5
    Sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2), intricate sensors for intracellular Mg‐nucleotides.Tianyi Hou & Lei Chen
    SUR2, similar to SUR1, is a regulatory subunit of the ATP‐sensitive potassium channel (KATP), which plays a key role in numerous important physiological processes and is implicated in various diseases. Recent structural studies have revealed that, like SUR1, SUR2 can undergo ligand‐dependent dynamic conformational changes, transitioning between an inhibitory inward‐facing conformation and an activating occluded conformation. In addition, SUR2 possesses a unique inhibitory Regulatory helix (R helix) that is absent in SUR1. The binding of the activating Mg‐ADP to NBD2 of (...)
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volume 64, issue 1, 2023
  1.  9
    Artful Truths: The Philosophy of Memoir.Hannah H. Kim
    You know that feeling when you see someone’s eyes light up when they talk about something they love? Now imagine reading a book that makes you feel that. In Art.
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    Gross negligence manslaughter of intern doctors – scapegoating or justified?Wing Hin Kason Lin
    Criminalizing unintentional mistakes in medicine as the offence of gross negligence manslaughter has always been a contentious issue. The threshold of prosecution is not well-defined, and even less clear when faced with a situation in which an intern doctor is held liable. This commentary attempts to review the current legal position of holding an intern doctor liable for gross negligence medical manslaughter.
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volume 48, issue 2, 2024
  1.  4
    The Information‐Processing Perspective on Categorization.Manolo Martínez
    Categorization behavior can be fruitfully analyzed in terms of the trade‐off between as high as possible faithfulness in the transmission of information about samples of the classes to be categorized, and as low as possible transmission costs for that same information. The kinds of categorization behaviors we associate with conceptual atoms, prototypes, and exemplars emerge naturally as a result of this trade‐off, in the presence of certain natural constraints on the probabilistic distribution of samples, and the ways in which we (...)
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  1.  2
    Interrogating the Meaning of ‘Quality’ in Utterances and Activities Protected by Academic Freedom.Joseph C. Hermanowicz
    “Quality” refers nominatively to a standard of performance. Quality is the central idea that differentiates speech protected by academic freedom (the right to worthwhile utterances) from constitutionally protected speech (the right to say anything at all). Extant documents and discussions state that professional peers determine quality based on norms of a field. But professional peers deem utterances and activities as consonant with quality only in reference to criteria that establish meaning of the term. In the absence of articulation, these criteria (...)
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  2.  7
    Transition from Academic Integrity to Research Integrity: The Use of Checklists in the Supervision of Master and Doctoral Students.Veronika Krásničan, Inga Gaižauskaitė, William Bülow, Dita Henek Dlabolova & Sonja Bjelobaba
    Given the prevalence of misconduct in research and among students in higher education, there is a need to create solutions for how best to prevent such behaviour in academia. This paper proceeds on the assumption that one way forward is to prepare students in higher education at an early stage and to encourage a smoother transition from academic integrity to research integrity by incorporating academic integrity training as an ongoing part of the curriculum. To this end, this paper presents three (...)
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  3.  4
    Ethics and Integrity in Research: Why Bridging the Gap Between Ethics and Integrity Matters.Susana Magalhães
    Ethics and integrity should be intertwined within the concept of Responsible Research. Integrity Officers should also be Ethics Officers, enforcing compliance with rules and norms, but also raising awareness on the meaning of ethics in researchers’ daily work. Paul Ricoeur’s definition of Ethics – “the aim of living a good life with and for others in just institutions” (Ricoeur in Oneself as Another. University of Chicago Press, 1994 ) –, points out the relational dimension of Ethics that matters to all (...)
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volume 22, issue 1, 2024
  1.  8
    The Defining Characteristics of Ethics Papers on Social Media Research: A Systematic Review of the Literature.Md Sayeed Al-Zaman, Ayushi Khemka, Andy Zhang & Geoffrey Rockwell
    The growing significance of social media in research demands new ethical standards and practices. Although a substantial body of literature on social media ethics exists, studies on the ethics of conducting research using social media are scarce. The emergence of new evidence sources, like social media, requires innovative methods and renewed consideration of research ethics. Therefore, we pose the following question: What are the defining characteristics of ethics papers on social media research? Following a modified version of the Preferred Reporting (...)
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  2.  9
    An Exploratory Study of Students’ Perceptions on the Use of Animals in Medical and Veterinary Medical Undergraduate Education.Cláudia S. Baptista, Pedro Oliveira & Laura Ribeiro
    Animals are frequently utilized as a teaching-learning tool in multiple educational settings. It is, therefore, important to understand what students think about this topic, in particular medical and veterinary students as “life caregivers” and competent people for a dynamic and responsible social intervention. In this context, this research aims to characterize and disseminate a set of issues related to animal welfare/wellbeing in higher education in the North of Portugal, particularly as regards the teaching of students of the Integrated Master in (...)
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  3.  3
    Academic Integrity Strategies: Student Insights.Caroline Campbell & Lorna Waddington
    This paper reports the key findings from two student surveys undertaken at our institution in the academic years 2020-21 and 2021-22. The research was based on the Bretag et al. (2018) student survey undertaken in various Australian universities. After discussions with both Bretag and Harper, we adapted the questions to our context – a Russell Group university in the UK – but included similar questions to enable a comparison, and to find out if there were common themes. The main aim (...)
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  4.  5
    Participants’ Right to Withdraw from Research: Researchers’ Lived Experiences on Ethics of Withdrawal.Bibek Dahal
    Ethics in research can be broadly divided into two epistemic dimensions. One dimension focuses on bureaucratic procedures (i.e., procedural ethics), while the other focuses on contextually and culturally contested practice of ethics in research (i.e., ethics in practice). Researchers experience both dimensions distinctly in their qualitative research. The review of ethics in prospective research through bureaucratic procedures aims to measure compliance with documented requirements relating to research participants, data management, consent, and ensure researchers can demonstrate their ethical competence before they (...)
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  5.  5
    Enhancing Ethics and Integrity in the Changing World.Irene Glendinning, Shiva Sivasubramaniam, Laura Ribeiro & Ana Cristina Veríssimo
  6.  5
    Academic Integrity Training Module for Academic Stakeholders: IEPAR Framework.Zeenath Reza Khan
    The global surge in academic misconduct during the COVID-19 pandemic, exacerbated by remote teaching and online assessment, necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the multidimensional aspects and stakeholders' perspectives associated with this issue. This paper addresses the prevalent use of answer-providing sites and other types of academic misconduct, underscoring the challenge of detecting all or most of the student misconduct. Exploring factors such as faculty inexperience in remote teaching and assessment, the paper advocates for proactive measures to preserve integrity in education. (...)
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  7.  5
    “I Cheat” or “We Cheat?” The Structure and Psychological Correlates of Individual vs. Collective Examination Dishonesty.Maciej Koscielniak, Jolanta Enko & Agata Gąsiorowska
    Examination dishonesty is a global problem that became particularly critical after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the shift to remote learning. Academic research has often examined this phenomenon as only one aspect of a broader concept of academic dishonesty and as a one-dimensional construct. This article builds on existing knowledge and proposes a novel, two-factor model of examination misconduct, dividing it into individual and collective forms of dishonesty. A study conducted on a large sample of 462 Polish students (...)
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  8.  42
    Detection of GPT-4 Generated Text in Higher Education: Combining Academic Judgement and Software to Identify Generative AI Tool Misuse.Mike Perkins, Jasper Roe, Darius Postma, James McGaughran & Don Hickerson
    This study explores the capability of academic staff assisted by the Turnitin Artificial Intelligence (AI) detection tool to identify the use of AI-generated content in university assessments. 22 different experimental submissions were produced using Open AI’s ChatGPT tool, with prompting techniques used to reduce the likelihood of AI detectors identifying AI-generated content. These submissions were marked by 15 academic staff members alongside genuine student submissions. Although the AI detection tool identified 91% of the experimental submissions as containing AI-generated content, only (...)
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  9.  6
    Exploring the Dark Side of Online Distance Learning: Cheating Behaviours, Contributing Factors, and Strategies to Enhance the Integrity of Online Assessment.Kershnee Sevnarayan & Kgabo Bridget Maphoto
    This study investigated cheating behaviours, contributing factors, and strategies to enhance the integrity of assessment in an online learning context. The researchers conducted an analysis of the literature on students’ motivation to cheat in online modules and noted that there is limited research on the specific reasons why students cheat in online learning contexts. To contribute to this knowledge gap, this study set out to understand cheating in two English modules with first-year second language students, in an open distance and (...)
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  1.  3
    The philosophy of sport in Brazil: in search of the construction of a field of research.Marcelo Moraes E. Silva & Evelise Amgarten Quitzau
    The field of Philosophy of Sport has been developing in Anglo-Saxon scholarship since the 1960s and since then has achieved considerable consolidation. However, this is a progressing field in Latin American countries like Brazil. This paper aims to analyse the trajectory of the Philosophy of Sport in Brazil, presenting an overview of its development since the 1980s and some prospects that have been generated since the turn of the century. In conclusion, the article points out that the field of Philosophy (...)
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volume 40, issue ?, 2023
  1. Wokismo, emotivismo hipertrofiado y nuevos abolicionismos.Miguel Angel Quintana Paz, Elizabeth Duval & Ayme Román
    Bajo el título «Utopías, distopías y otras nostalgias», la cuarta edición del Congreso de Pensamiento Interdisciplinar, organizado por alumnos del grado de Filosofía, Política y Economía de la Alianza 4 Universidades, abordó el controvertido fenómeno woke, una supuesta mezcla de izquierda identitaria y progresismo políticamente correcto al que se acusa de promover la censura y la llamada «cultura de la cancelación». Sobre esta cuestión conversaron la escritora y filósofa Elizabeth Duval, la investigadora Ayme Román y el director académico y profesor (...)
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  1.  2
    Does artificial intelligence exhibit basic fundamental subjectivity? A neurophilosophical argument.Georg Northoff & Steven S. Gouveia
    Does artificial intelligence (AI) exhibit consciousness or self? While this question is hotly debated, here we take a slightly different stance by focusing on those features that make possible both, namely a basic or fundamental subjectivity. Learning from humans and their brain, we first ask what we mean by subjectivity. Subjectivity is manifest in the perspectiveness and mineness of our experience which, ontologically, can be traced to a point of view. Adopting a non-reductive neurophilosophical strategy, we assume that the point (...)
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volume 2024, issue , 2024
  1.  8
    What could come before time? Intertwining affectivity and temporality at the basis of intentionality.Juan Diego Bogotá
    The enactive approach to cognition and the phenomenological tradition have in common a wide conception of ‘intentionality’. Within these frameworks, intentionality is understood as a general openness to the world. For classical phenomenologists, the most basic subjective structure that allows for such openness is time-consciousness. Some enactivists, while inspired by the phenomenological tradition, have nevertheless argued that affectivity is more basic, being that which gives rise to the temporal flow of consciousness. In this paper, I assess the relationship between temporality (...)
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    On IQ and other sciencey descriptions of minds.Devin Sanchez Curry
    Philosophers of mind (from eliminative materialists to psychofunctionalists to interpretivists) generally assume that a normative ideal delimits which mental phenomena exist (though they disagree about how to characterize the ideal in question). This assumption is dubious. A comprehensive ontology of mind includes some mental phenomena that are neither (a) explanatorily fecund posits in any branch of cognitive science that aims to unveil the mechanistic structure of cognitive systems nor (b) ideal (nor even progressively closer to ideal) posits in any given (...)
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volume 44, issue 1, 2024
  1. Daniel A. Dombrowski, "Pre-Liberal Political Philosophy: Rawls and Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas.". [REVIEW]Travis Hreno
    A book review of Daniel A. Dombrowski's, "Pre-Liberal Political Philosophy: Rawls and Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas.".
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  1.  3
    Enfranchising all subjected: A reconstruction and problematization.Robert E. Goodin & Gustaf Arrhenius
    There are two classic principles for deciding who should have a right to vote on the laws, the All Affected Principle and the All Subjected Principle. This article is devoted, firstly, to providing a sympathetic reconstruction of the All Subjected Principle, identifying the most credible account of what it is to be subject to the law. Secondly, it shows that that best account still suffers some serious difficulties, which might best be resolved by treating the All Subjected Principle as a (...)
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  1.  2
    Partial Reasons.Federico L. G. Faroldi
    Partial reasons are considerations in favor of something that, taken individually, are not sufficient to establish an obligation. I consider the extent to which partial reasons are reasons, and why they cannot be reduced to or identified with pro tanto reasons. I lay out two approaches to the content of reasons, the flat theory and the structured theory. I argue that parts of reasons are not partial reasons, by showing that natural ways to represent parts of reasons in the flat (...)
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volume 13, issue 1, 2023
  1. Conceptualizing and Contextualizing Natural Law.Deepa Kansra & Rabindra K. Pathak
    The idea of natural law has a long history. It has had different meanings for different people and continues to occupy intellectual engagements as to the connotations of the expression ‘natural law’ in diverse and different contexts. This requires delving deep into the hoarypast and analyzing the gradual development of the idea of natural law through the ages. Understanding natural law necessitates exploring its relation with positive law, its application, and, notably, the import of the word ‘natural’ in the expression (...)
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volume 203, issue 81, 2024
  1. Environmental Epistemology.Dallas Amico-Korby, Maralee Harrell & David Danks
    We argue that there is a large class of questions—specifically questions about how to epistemically evaluate environments that currently available epistemic theories are not well-suited for answering, precisely because these questions are not about the epistemic state of particular agents or groups. For example, if we critique Facebook for being conducive to the spread of misinformation, then we are not thereby critiquing Facebook for being irrational, or lacking knowledge, or failing to testify truthfully. Instead, we are saying something about the (...)
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Feb 25th 2024 GMT
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  1.  6
    Public perceptions of the use of artificial intelligence in Defence: a qualitative exploration.Lee Hadlington, Maria Karanika-Murray, Jane Slater, Jens Binder, Sarah Gardner & Sarah Knight
    There are a wide variety of potential applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in Defence settings, ranging from the use of autonomous drones to logistical support. However, limited research exists exploring how the public view these, especially in view of the value of public attitudes for influencing policy-making. An accurate understanding of the public’s perceptions is essential for crafting informed policy, developing responsible governance, and building responsive assurance relating to the development and use of AI in military settings. This study is (...)
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  2.  5
    Narrativity and responsible and transparent ai practices.Paul Hayes & Noel Fitzpatrick
    This paper builds upon recent work in narrative theory and the philosophy of technology by examining the place of transparency and responsibility in discussions of AI, and what some of the implications of this might be for thinking ethically about AI and especially AI practices, that is, the structured social activities implicating and defining what AI is. In this paper, we aim to show how pursuing a narrative understanding of technology and AI can support knowledge of process and practice through (...)
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  1.  5
    Manipulation, deception, the victim’s reasoning and her evidence.Vladimir Krstić
    This paper rejects an argument defending the view that the boundary between deception and manipulation is such that some manipulations intended to cause false beliefs count as non-deceptive. On the strongest version of this argument, if a specific behaviour involves compromising the victim’s reasoning, then the behaviour is manipulative but not deceptive, and if it involves exposing the victim to misleading evidence that justifies her false belief, then it is deceptive but not manipulative. This argument has been consistently used as (...)
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