New manuscripts

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Apr 23rd 2024 GMT
volume 28, issue 2, 2024
  1. The Filter and the Viewer: On Audience Discretion in Film Noir.Steven G. Smith
    To the French critics who originally labelled certain films noir it seemed that a class of Hollywood products had gone darker during the war years – as though a dark filter had been placed over the lens. Films were not designed or marketed as noir, and retrospectively noir's status as a genre is still unsettled. Yet there is widespread interest today in experiencing diverse films as noir, and even in using a Noir Filter in Instagram and video games. Pursuing the (...)
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  1. Enhancing Public Library Services: A Future Outlook on Digital Libraries in Pakistan.Muhammad Sohail Haider, Chen Ya, Md Nurul Islam, Muhammad Danyal & Muhammad Hussain - unknown
    Objective: Governments consistently aim to enhance services and establish online connections to efficiently deliver necessary information. This study aims to evaluate the future potential of digital libraries in public libraries in Pakistan by examining various projects that have introduced innovative approaches to foster the development of digital library services. Methodology: The analysis utilized the Amos 24 version, employing the Structural Equation Model (SEM) for assessing model fit indices and validating hypotheses. Additionally, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 was (...)
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  2. Individual consent in cluster randomised trials for non-pharmaceutical interventions: going beyond the Ottawa statement.Marissa LeBlanc, Jon Williamson, Francesco De Pretis, Jürgen Landes & Elena Rocca - unknown
    This paper discusses the issue of overriding the right of individual consent to participation in cluster randomised trials (CRTs). We focus on CRTs testing the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions. As an example, we consider school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Norway, a CRT was promoted as necessary for providing the best evidence to inform pandemic management policy. However, the proposal was rejected by the Norwegian Research Ethics Committee since it would violate the requirement for individual informed consent. This sparked (...)
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  3. Finite frequentism explains quantum probability.Simon Saunders - unknown
    I show that frequentism, as an explanation of probability in classical statistical mechanics, can be extended in a natural way to a decoherent quantum history space, the analogue of a classical phase space. The result is a form of finite frequentism, in which Gibbs’ concept of an infinite ensemble of gases is replaced by the quantum state expressed as a superposition of a finite number of decohering microstates. It is a form of finite and actual frequentism (as opposed to hypothetical (...)
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  4. Bibliometric study of DESIDOC Journal of Library and Information Technology.Roopendra Singh, Abhishek Yadav, Babita Yadav & Neeraj Kumar Verma - unknown
    This study provides a bibliometric analysis of the DESIDOC journal of library and information technology during 2012–2022. Research data for this study has been exported from the SCOPUS database. A total of 638 articles published during the study period were analyzed to determine the most cited articles, most prolific author, growth of publication, occurrence of keywords, citation pattern, and authorship pattern. To visualize the occurrence of keywords and the co-citation of the author network, Vosviewer software was used. This study also (...)
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  5. Golden spikes, scientific types, and the ma(r)king of deep time.Joeri Witteveen - unknown
    Chronostratigraphy is the subfield of geology that studies the relative age of rock strata and that aims at producing a hierarchical classification of (global) divisions of the historical time-rock record. The ‘golden spike’ or ‘GSSP’ approach is the cornerstone of contemporary chronostratigraphic methodology. It is also perplexing. Chronostratigraphers define each global time-rock boundary extremely locally, often by driving a gold-colored pin into an exposed rock section at a particular level. Moreover, they usually avoid rock sections that show any meaningful sign (...)
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  6. How to serve two epistemic masters.Leszek Wronski & Zalán Gyenis - unknown
    We extend a result by Gallow concerning the impossibility of following two epistemic masters, so that it covers a larger class of pooling methods. We also investigate a few ways of avoiding the issue, such as using non-convex pooling methods, employing the notion of imperfect trust or moving to higher-order probability spaces. Along the way we suggest a conceptual issue with the conditions used by Gallow: whenever two experts are considered, whether we can trust one of them is decided by (...)
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  7. Eros, Interest, and Partiality: On Agnes Callard's Aspiration[REVIEW]Ben Wolfson - manuscript
    I consider Agnes Callard's _Aspiration_, primarily with regard to its characterization of aspirants as having a partial grasp of a value and being oriented toward their own self-improvement, and to its descriptions of individual case studies, primarily those of Alcibiades and the "good music student" who wishes to learn more about music for its own sake. While she surely has a real phenomenon in view, her theorization of it is more baffling than enlightening, hemmed in by bizarre side conditions on (...)
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  8.  10
    Size adaptation: Do you know it when you see it?Sami Yousif & Sam Clarke - manuscript
    The visual system adapts to a wide range of visual features, from lower-level features like color and motion to higher-level features like causality and, perhaps, number. According to some, adaptation is a strictly perceptual phenomenon, such that the presence of adaptation licenses the claim that a feature is truly perceptual in nature. Given the theoretical importance of claims about adaptation, then, it is important to understand exactly when the visual system does and does not exhibit adaptation. Here, we take as (...)
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Apr 22nd 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. A Risk-Based Regulatory Approach to Autonomous Weapon Systems.Alexander Blanchard, Claudio Novelli, Luciano Floridi & Mariarosaria Taddeo - manuscript
    International regulation of autonomous weapon systems (AWS) is increasingly conceived as an exercise in risk management. This requires a shared approach for assessing the risks of AWS. This paper presents a structured approach to risk assessment and regulation for AWS, adapting a qualitative framework inspired by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It examines the interactions among key risk factors—determinants, drivers, and types—to evaluate the risk magnitude of AWS and establish risk tolerance thresholds through a risk matrix informed by (...)
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Apr 21st 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. The Vienna Declaration on The New York Declaration on Animal Consciousness. [REVIEW]Hanoch Ben-Yami - manuscript
    An expression of disagreement with the views stated in The New York Declaration on Animal Consciousness.
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  2. Phenomenal Powers.Hedda Hassel Mørch - manuscript
    The phenomenal powers view claims that phenomenal properties metaphysically necessitate their effects in virtue of how they feel, and thereby constitute non-Humean causal powers. For example, pain necessitates that subjects who experience it try to avoid it in virtue of feeling bad. I argue for this view based on the inconceivability of certain phenomenal properties necessitating different effects than their actual ones, their ability to predict their effects without induction, and their ability to explain their effects without appeal to laws (...)
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Apr 19th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Freedom beyond liberalism : a reconstruction of Hegel’s social and political philosophy.Bernardo Ferro - unknown
    In the last decades, Hegel’s mature political philosophy has come to be associated with some form of social or welfare liberalism. Challenging this line of interpretation, this study aims to show that his work harbours a more ambitious philosophical programme, grounded in a different vision of the modern state. However, this programme is only partly spelled out in the Philosophy of Right. While the conceptual logic that guides Hegel’s dialectical progression points beyond the modern liberal standpoint, some of his concrete (...)
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Apr 18th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1.  18
    Physical Theory and Physical Possibility.Samuel Baron, Baptiste Le Bihan & James Read - unknown
    It is plausible that the models of our scientific theories correspond to possibilities. But exactly which models of which scientific theories stand in this correspondence? The answers to this question hinted at so far in the literature are too restrictive: they don't support the idea that the models of many of our best scientific theories correspond to physical possibilities. The paper thus provides a novel proposal for guiding belief about physical possibilities based on physics. The proposal draws on the notion (...)
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  2. Assessing Emerging Health Technologies: An Integrated Perspective.J. Jacob - unknown
    Healthcare expenditures account for approximately 9% of GDP in OECD countries and are on an upward trajectory (OECD, 2017). This significant financial burden, combined with an aging global population and increasing demand, emphasizes the imperative for sustained research and innovation to enhance health system efficacy. Key to this transformation are technological advancements, including digital health, which presents novel opportunities for improvement. Emerging digital health technologies, such as virtual consultations, complex imaging procedures, and electronic medical records, are fundamental to modern healthcare (...)
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Apr 17th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1.  8
    Moral Education Through the Fostering of Reasoning Skills.Kirsten Meyer - unknown
    The development of reasoning skills is often regarded as a central goal of ethics and philosophy classes in school education. In light of recent studies from the field of moral psychology, however, it could be objected that the promotion of such skills might fail to meet another important objective, namely the moral education of students. In this paper, I will argue against such pessimism by suggesting that the fostering of reasoning skills can still contribute to the aims of moral education. (...)
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  2.  41
    The Relativity of Volition: Aristotle’s Teleological Agent Causalism.Robert Allen - manuscript
    Nicomachean Ethics/NE, Book III, Chapters 1-5, provides Aristotle’s account of “Voluntary Movement.” It, thus, draws the Passion-Action distinction, only posited earlier in Categories, while also serving as the linchpin of NE’ discussion of Virtue, in explicitly connecting it to Right Reason. My explication of this text renders its terminology consistent with the Law of Excluded Middle and rebuts two criticisms of the Eudaimonistic Axiology on which it is based. These results are shown to be entailments of Aristotle’s doctrine that Voluntary (...)
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  3. Social Choice for AI Alignment: Dealing with Diverse Human Feedback.Vincent Conitzer, Rachel Freedman, Jobst Heitzig, Wesley H. Holliday, Bob M. Jacobs, Nathan Lambert, Milan Mosse, Eric Pacuit, Stuart Russell, Hailey Schoelkopf, Emanuel Tewolde & William S. Zwicker - manuscript
    Foundation models such as GPT-4 are fine-tuned to avoid unsafe or otherwise problematic behavior, so that, for example, they refuse to comply with requests for help with committing crimes or with producing racist text. One approach to fine-tuning, called reinforcement learning from human feedback, learns from humans' expressed preferences over multiple outputs. Another approach is constitutional AI, in which the input from humans is a list of high-level principles. But how do we deal with potentially diverging input from humans? How (...)
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  4.  36
    Empirical Access to Life’s Teleological Forces via an Active and Co-Constitutive Relation between Subject and Object.Christoph J. Hueck - manuscript
    This article proposes an approach to understanding life that overcomes reductionist and dualist approaches. Kant’s analysis of the conditions of knowing an organism shows that attempts to explain its teleology and autopoiesis from the interactions of its components is problematic. Based on an analysis by Van de Vijver and colleagues, a co-constitutive relationship between the cognitive activities of the observer and the living features of the organism is described. Using the example of a developmental series, it is shown that within (...)
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  5.  7
    Implications of computer science theory for the simulation hypothesis.David Wolpert - manuscript
    The simulation hypothesis has recently excited renewed interest, especially in the physics and philosophy communities. However, the hypothesis specifically concerns {computers} that simulate physical universes, which means that to properly investigate it we need to couple computer science theory with physics. Here I do this by exploiting the physical Church-Turing thesis. This allows me to introduce a preliminary investigation of some of the computer science theoretic aspects of the simulation hypothesis. In particular, building on Kleene's second recursion theorem, I prove (...)
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  6.  11
    Dynamic Many Valued Logic Systems in Theoretical Economics.D. Lu - manuscript
    This paper is an original attempt to understand the foundations of economic reasoning. It endeavors to rigorously define the relationship between subjective interpretations and objective valuations of such interpretations in the context of theoretical economics. This analysis is substantially expanded through a dynamic approach, where the truth of a valuation results in an updated interpretation or changes in the agent's subjective belief regarding the effectiveness of the selected action as well as the objective reality of the effectiveness of all other (...)
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Apr 16th 2024 GMT
New books
  1. Attention and Power.Carolyn Dicey Jennings - manuscript
    As discussions concerning attention progress from cognition to norms—from the individual to the social—we are left with the question: what is “social” attention? It is typically discussed in scientific papers as attention by an individual in a social setting. This book expands on earlier work to explore something more fundamentally social: attention by a social group, which I will call “collective attention.” (Contact for draft of Chapter 2: The Power of Attention.).
     
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Manuscripts
  1. Human and Machine: Analyzing Language Trends in Descriptions of Academic Philosophy.Sherri Lynn Conklin, Alex Dayer, Michael Nekrasov & Carolyn Dicey Jennings - manuscript
    Advances in machine learning hold promise for corpus analysis: they have the potential to allow for more efficient and less biased analyses of text. This would be a boon for qualitative research, such as the survey research conducted by Academic Philosophy Data and Analysis. In this paper we examine the utility of automated machine learning for select survey questions, with a focus on LDA and VADER. We thus compare human and machine coding on the question of whether underrepresented philosophers are (...)
     
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  2. Interview with Prof. Peter Galison.Marco Forgione - manuscript
    Dr. Marco Forgione (University of Milan), COSMOS team member, interviewed Prof. Peter Galison (Harvard University) in occasion of the event “Photographs from Outer Space”.
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  3. Consciousness as Relation.Carolyn Dicey Jennings - manuscript
    As many have said before, consciousness is not a thing. They retort: it is a process, a function, a seeming. I argue, instead, that it is a relation—a relation between a subject and their world. This new metaphysics of consciousness provides a way forward on the problem of consciousness and resolves old puzzles: the non-localizability issues of consciousness, for example, are also true of relations. What follows is reasoning aimed at upending what I take to be a deep misconception, with (...)
     
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Apr 15th 2024 GMT
volume 13, issue ?, 2024
  1.  8
    Book review: Ethical Inquiries after Wittgenstein, edited by Salla Aldrin Salskov, Ondřej Beran and Nora Hämäläinen. [REVIEW]Joel Backström
    Review of Salla Aldrin Salskov, Ondřej Beran and Nora Hämäläinen (eds.), Ethical Inquiries after Wittgenstein.
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  2.  4
    Book review: Wittgenstein’s Philosophy in 1929, edited by Florian Franken Figueiredo. [REVIEW]Joachim Schulte
    Review of Wittgenstein’s Philosophy in 1929, edited by Florian Franken Figueiredo.
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  3.  15
    “What Line Can’t Be Measured With a Ruler?”: Riddles and Concept-Formation in Mathematics and Aesthetics.Samuel Wheeler & William Brenner
    We analyze two problems in mathematics – the first (stated in our title) is extracted from Wittgenstein’s “Philosophy for Mathematicians”; the second (“What set of numbers is non-denumerable?”) is taken from Cantor. We then consider, by way of comparison, a problem in musical aesthetics concerning a Brahms variation on a theme by Haydn. Our aim is to bring out and elucidate the essentially riddle-like character of these problems.
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  1.  9
    Creative and geometric times in physics, mathematics, logic, and philosophy.Flavio Del Santo & Nicolas Gisin - unknown
    We propose a distinction between two different concepts of time that play a role in physics: geometric time and creative time. The former is the time of deterministic physics and merely parametrizes a given evolution. The latter is instead characterized by real change, i.e. novel information that gets created when a non-necessary event becomes determined in a fundamentally indeterministic physics. This allows us to give a naturalistic characterization of the present as the moment that separates the potential future from the (...)
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  2.  4
    Knowing who occupies an office; purely contingent, necessary and impossible offices.Marie Duzi & Martina Číhalová - unknown
    This paper examines different kinds of definite descriptions denoting purely contingent, necessary or impossible objects. The discourse about contingent/impossible/necessary objects can be organised in terms of rational questions to ask and answer relative to the modal profile of the entity in question. There are also limits on what it is rational to know about entities with this or that modal profile. We will also examine epistemic modalities; they are the kind of necessity and possibility that is determined by epistemic constraints (...)
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  3.  13
    The ethics and politics of nudges and niches: A critical analysis of exclusionary environmental designs.Lucy Osler, Bart Engelen & Alfred Archer - 2024 - In .
    This chapter critically analyses the ethical and political dimensions of supposedly subtle and non-coercive interventions that aim to ‘prevent crime’ through environmental designs making certain public spaces less attractive for specific groups. Examples include benches designed to discourage sleeping (targeted at homeless people), high-pitched noises or classical music played to deter lingering (targeted at youngsters), and specific lighting to prevent aggression (targeted at nightlife). While these interventions may appear less problematic than more traditional exclusionary measures, they raise ethical and political (...)
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Apr 14th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1. Another Look at Husserl’s Treatment of the Thing in Itself.Matt Bower - manuscript
    It is a familiar story that, where Kant humbly draws a line beyond which cognition can’t reach, Husserl presses forward to show how we can cognize beyond that limit. Kant supposes that cognition is bound to sensibility and that what we experience in sensibility is mere appearance that does not inform us about the intrinsic nature of things in themselves. By contrast, for Husserl, it makes no sense to say we experience anything other than things in themselves when we enjoy (...)
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Apr 13th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1.  4
    Corporate moral responsibility.J. David Hull - unknown
    This dissertation argues that corporate moral responsibility can be an element of functioning corporations and is a choice that society can make. Although many in the lay community would say that of course corporations should attend to moral questions, the philosophy of how this can be rightly said is controversial. Section one (first three chapters) gives an account of the nature of functioning business corporations involving the readily observable facts about a corporation doing business, and a tripartite model of the (...)
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Apr 12th 2024 GMT
volume 31, issue 1, 2024
  1.  2
    The Phenomenology of Pain and Pleasure: Henry and Levinas.Espen Dahl & Theodor Sandal Rolfsen
    While Henry and Levinas are often juxtaposed, little attention has been given to their shared views on pain and pleasure. Both phenomenologists converge on the argument that an adequate account of pain and pleasure requires a critical confrontation with the theory of intentionality. This raises further questions. What roles do interiority and exteriority play in pain and pleasure? Should they be conceived as different tonalities of one essence or as heterogenous phenomena? Despite their shared critique of intentionality, Henry and Levinas (...)
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  2.  6
    The Seduction of Metaphors.Philip Mills
    Nietzsche’s metaphor of seduction suggests that language catches philosophers in the trap of metaphysics. Nietzsche uses the poetic powers of language to fight against this metaphysical language. However, his use of the metaphor of truth as a woman seems to seduce him back in metaphysics. Metaphors become seductive because of their rhetorical and performative power. One must therefore be wary of the seduction of metaphors when attempting at revaluating the metaphysics of language. Hélène Cixous undertakes such a task, using a (...)
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  1.  17
    Geometric Averaging in Consequentialist Ethics.Alfred Harwood - manuscript
    When faced with uncertainty, consequentialists often advocate choosing the option with the largest expected utility, as calculated using the arithmetic average. I provide some arguments to suggest that instead, one should consider choosing the option with the largest geometric average of utility. I explore the difference between these two approaches in a variety of ethical dilemmas and argue that geometric averaging has some appealing properties as a normative decision-making tool.
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Apr 11th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1.  89
    Against Metaphysical Necessity. Alethic Modalities in Updated Logical Empiricism.Manuel Bremer - manuscript
    The paper argues against a commitment to metaphysical necessity, semantic modalities are enough. The best approaches to elucidate the semantic modalities are (still) versions of lingustic ersatzism and fictionalism, even if only developed in parts. Within these necessary properties and the difference between natural and semantic laws can be accounted for. The proper background theory for this is an updated version of Logical Empiricism, which is congenial to recent trends in Structural Realism. The anti-metaphysical attitude of Logical Empiricism deserves revitalization. (...)
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  2.  47
    Causal Set Theory and Growing Block? Not Quite.Marco Forgione - manuscript
    In this contribution, I explore the possibility of characterizing the emergence of time in causal set theory (CST) in terms of the growing block universe (GBU) metaphysics. I show that although GBU seems to be the most intuitive time metaphysics for CST, it leaves us with a number of interpretation problems, independently of which dynamics we choose to favor for the theory —here I shall consider the Classical Sequential Growth and the Covariant model. Discrete general covariance of the CSG dynamics (...)
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  3. Implications of computer science theory for the simulation hypothesis.David Wolpert - manuscript
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Apr 10th 2024 GMT
volume 12, issue 3, 2024
  1.  22
    Wittgenstein and Frege on Negation and Denial.Colin Johnston
    Frege maintains that there are not two distinct acts, assertion and denial; rather, denying p is one and the same as asserting not-p. Wittgenstein appears not to recognise this identity in Frege, attributing to him the contrary view that a proposition may have one of two verbs, "is true" or "is false". This paper explains Wittgenstein’s attribution as a consequence of Frege’s treatment of content as theoretically prior to the act of judgment. Where content is prior to judgment, the denial (...)
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Manuscripts
  1. Children as Commodity and Changeling: Gender Disappointments and Gender Disappointment.Matthew J. Cull - manuscript
    ‘Gender disappointment’ is regularly reported by those whose child’s sex does not match the sex that they, the parent, desired. With symptoms ranging from mere fleeting sadness to documented cases of serious depression, alienation from one’s child, and emotional suffering, it is clear that so-called ‘gender disappointment’ is a serious issue, that has, as yet, seen little philosophical attention (though see Hendl and Browne 2020). In this chapter I explore gender disappointment, not from the perspective of a parent who ended (...)
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  2. Synthetic Philosophy, a Restatement.Eric Schliesser - manuscript
    The advanced division of cognitive labor generates a set of challenges and opportunities for professional philosophers. In this paper, I re-characterize the nature of synthetic philosophy in light of these challenges and opportunities. In part 1, I’ll remind you of the centrality of the division of labor to Plato’s Republic, and why this is especially salient in his banishment of the poets from his Kallipolis. I’ll then focus on the significance of an easily overlooked albeit rather significant character, Damon, mentioned (...)
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  3.  97
    Language Models as Critical Thinking Tools: A Case Study of Philosophers.Andre Ye, Jared Moore, Rose Novick & Amy Zhang - manuscript
    Current work in language models (LMs) helps us speed up or even skip thinking by accelerating and automating cognitive work. But can LMs help us with critical thinking -- thinking in deeper, more reflective ways which challenge assumptions, clarify ideas, and engineer new concepts? We treat philosophy as a case study in critical thinking, and interview 21 professional philosophers about how they engage in critical thinking and on their experiences with LMs. We find that philosophers do not find LMs to (...)
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Apr 9th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1.  17
    From cause and effect to causes and effects.Joachim P. Sturmberg & James A. Marcum - unknown
    It is now—at least loosely—acknowledged that most health and clinical outcomes are influenced by different interacting causes. Surprisingly, medical research studies are nearly universally designed to study—usually in a binary way—the effect of a single cause. Recent experiences during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic brought to the forefront that most of our challenges in medicine and healthcare deal with systemic, that is, interdependent and interconnected problems. Understanding these problems defy simplistic dichotomous research methodologies. These insights demand a shift in our (...)
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  2. The Newman Problem of Consciousness Science.Johannes Kleiner - manuscript
    The Newman problem is a fundamental problem that threatens to undermine structural assumptions and structural theories throughout philosophy and science. Here, we consider the problem in the context of consciousness science. We introduce and discuss the problem, and explain why it is detrimental not only to structuralist assumptions, but also to theories of consciousness, if left unconsidered. However, we show that if phenomenal spaces, and mathematical structures of conscious experience more generally, are understood in the right way, the Newman problem (...)
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  3. Review of Gerhard Schurz's Optimality Justifications (2024, OUP). [REVIEW]Richard Pettigrew - manuscript
Apr 7th 2024 GMT
New books
  1. Probing The Meaning Of Quantum Mechanics: Probability, Metaphysics, Explanation And Measurement.Diederik Aerts, Jonas Arenhart, Christian De Ronde & Giuseppe Sergioli (eds.) - 2023 - World Scientific.
    Quantum theory is perhaps our best confirmed theory for a description of the physical properties of nature. On top of demonstrating great empirical effectiveness, many technological developments in the 20th century (such as the interpretation of the periodic table of elements, CD players, holograms, and quantum state teleportation) were only made possible with Quantum theory.Despite its success in the past decades, even today it still remains without a universally accepted interpretation.This book provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the question; 'What is (...)
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Manuscripts
  1.  25
    Aristotelian Ethics Without Exploitation?Gregory Salmieri - manuscript
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  2.  24
    Does Virtue Make Money or Make it Good? Understanding Apology 30b2-4.Gregory Salmieri - manuscript
    Depending on how one construes the Greek at Apology at 30b2-4, Socrates says either that money and everything else good for men comes from virtue or that money and everything else becomes good for men because of virtue. I defend the first option (which is agreed to be the more natural construal) against arguments (from Burnet, Taylor and Burnyeat) that it commits Socrates to something he could not have held.
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Apr 6th 2024 GMT
Manuscripts
  1.  14
    The Qualitative Study of Scientific Imagination.Michael T. Stuart - unknown
    Imagination is extremely important for science, yet very little is known about how scientists actually use it. Are scientists taught to imagine? What do they value imagination for? How do social and disciplinary factors shape it? How is the labor of imagining distributed? These questions should be high priority for anyone who studies or practices science, and this paper argues that the best methods for addressing them are qualitative. I summarize a few preliminary findings derived from recent interview-based and observational (...)
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1 — 50 / 84