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  1. Consumer Ethics Research: Review, Synthesis and Suggestions for the Future. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):33 - 47.
    This manuscript reviews and synthesizes most of the major research studies in the area of consumer ethics that have appeared since 1990. It examines both conceptual and empirical works with an objective of encouraging researchers to pursue research in the consumer ethics area. Toward this end, the paper also suggests directions for future research.
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  • Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of Factors Influencing Ethical Judgments of the Final Consumer. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (8):585 - 597.
    Business and marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. This research investigates general attitudes of consumers relative to business, government and people in general, and compares these attitudes to their beliefs concerning various questionable consumer practices. The results show that consumers'' ethical beliefs are determined, in part, by who is at fault (...)
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  • Toward the Development of a Multidimensional Scale for Improving Evaluations of Business Ethics.R. E. Reidenbach & D. P. Robin - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (8):639 - 653.
    This study represents an improvement in the ethics scales inventory published in a 1988 Journal of Business Ethics article. The article presents the distillation and validation process whereby the original 33 item inventory was reduced to eight items. These eight items comprise the following ethical dimensions: a moral equity dimension, a relativism dimension, and a contractualism dimension. The multidimensional ethics scale demonstrates significant predictive ability.
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  • The Muncy–Vitell Consumer Ethics Scale: A Modification and Application.Scott J. Vitell & James Muncy - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):267-275.
    This study compares college students with other adults in terms of the Muncy–Vitell (1992) consumer ethics scale. Further, the study updates the Muncy–Vitell consumer ethics scale with modifications that include rewording and the addition of new items. These new items can be grouped into three distinct categories – (1) downloading/buying counterfeit goods, (2) recycling/environmental awareness and (3) doing the right thing/doing good. The study also compares these two groups in terms of their attitude toward business. Results show that there is (...)
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  • Ethical Beliefs of Chinese Consumers in Hong Kong.Andrew Chan, Simon Wong & Paul Leung - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (11):1163-1170.
    In recent years, there has been increased awareness of unethical consumer practices in Asian countries. Asian consumers have gained a bad reputation for buying counterfeit products, such as computer software, fashion clothing and watches. In 1993, the estimated losses to US software companies due to Chinese counterfeiting stood at US $322 million (Kohut, 1994). The present study uses a consumer ethics scale developed by Muncy and Vitell (1992) to investigate consumers' ethical judgments from a Chinese perspective. The result shows that (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics: An Assessment of Individual Behavior in the Market Place. [REVIEW]Sam Fullerton, Kathleen B. Kerch & H. Robert Dodge - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (7):805 - 814.
    A national sample of 362 respondents assessed the ethical predisposition of the American marketplace by calculating a consumer ethics index. The results indicate that the population is quite intolerant of perceived ethical abuses. The situations where consumers are ambivalent tend to be those where the seller suffers little or no economic harm from the consumer's action. Younger, more educated, and higher income consumers appear more accepting of these transgressions. The results provided the basis for developing a four-group taxonomy of consumers (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics in the European Union: A Comparison of Northern and Southern Views. [REVIEW]Michael Jay Polonsky, Pedro Quelhas Brito, Jorge Pinto & Nicola Higgs-Kleyn - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 31 (2):117 - 130.
    There is a growing interest in understanding consumer ethical actions in relation to their dealings with firms. This paper examines whether there are differences between Northern and Southern European Union (EU) consumers'' perceptions of ethical consumer behaviour using Muncy and Vitell''s (1992) Consumer Ethics Scale (CES). The study samples 962 university students across four Northern EU countries (Germany, Denmark, Scotland, The Netherlands) and four Southern EU countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece). Some differences are identified between the two samples, which might (...)
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  • Consumer Ethics: An Empirical Investigation of the Ethical Beliefs of Austrian Consumers. [REVIEW]Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (9):1009 - 1019.
    Business and Marketing ethics have come to the forefront in recent years. While consumers have been surveyed regarding their perceptions of ethical business and marketing practices, research has been minimal with regard to their ethical beliefs and ideologies. In addition, no study has examined the ethical beliefs of Austrian consumers even though Austria maintains a unique status of political neutrality, nonalignment, stability, economic prosperity and geographical proximity to the East- and West-European countries. This research investigates the relationship between Machiavellianism, ethical (...)
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  • Nature as Subject: Human Obligation and Natural Community.Eric Katz - 1996 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Written by one of the instrumental figures in environmental ethics, Nature as Subject traces the development of an ethical policy that is centered not on human beings, but on itself. Katz applies this idea to contemporary environmental problems, introducing themes of justice, domination, imperialism, and the Holocaust. This volume will stand as a foundational work for environmental scholars, government and industry policy makers, activists, and students in advanced philosophy and environmental studies courses.
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