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  1. The Responsibility to Protect—Five Years On.Alex J. Bellamy - 2010 - Ethics and International Affairs 24 (2):143-169.
    States' Responsibility to Protect vulnerable populations has become a prominent feature in international debates about preventing genocide and mass atrocities and about protecting potential victims. But profound disagreements persist about RtoP's function, meaning, and proper use.
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  • Counterfactuals and the Proportionality Criterion.David Mellow - 2006 - Ethics and International Affairs 20 (4):439-454.
    It is widely held that, in order for a resort to war or military force to be morally justified, it must, in addition to having a cause that is just, be proportionate. Mellow argues for the need of a counterfactual baseline with moral qualifiers when making the proportionality evaluation.
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  • Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: Who Should Intervene?James Pattison (ed.) - 2010 - Oxford University Press.
    This book considers who should undertake humanitarian intervention in response to an ongoing or impending humanitarian crisis. It develops a normative account of legitimacy to assess not only current interveners, but also the desirability of potential reforms to the mechanisms and agents of humanitarian intervention.
  • Killing in War.Jeff McMahan - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Jeff McMahan urges us to reject the view, dominant throughout history, that mere participation in an unjust war is not wrong.
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  • Jus Post Bellum.Gary J. Bass - 2004 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 32 (4):384-412.
  • Tensions in a Certain Conception of Just War as Law Enforcement.Jacob Blair - 2008 - Res Publica 14 (4):303-311.
    Many just war theorists (call them traditionalists) claim that just as people have a right to personal self-defense, so nations have a right to national-defense against an aggressive military invasion. David Rodin claims that the traditionalist is unable to justify most defensive wars against aggression. For most aggressive states only commit conditional aggression in that they threaten to kill or maim the citizens of the nation they are invading only if those citizens resist the occupation. Most wars, then, claimed to (...)
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  • The Ethics of Killing in War.Jeff McMahan - 2006 - Philosophia 34 (1):693-733.
    This paper argues that certain central tenets of the traditional theory of the just war cannot be correct. It then advances an alternative account grounded in the same considerations of justice that govern self-defense at the individual level. The implications of this account are unorthodox. It implies that, with few exceptions, combatants who fight for an unjust cause act impermissibly when they attack enemy combatants, and that combatants who fight in a just war may, in certain circumstances, legitimately target noncombatants (...)
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  • The Ethics of Killing in War.Jeff McMahan - 2004 - Ethics 114 (4):693-733.
    The traditional theory of the just war comprises two sets of principles, one governing the resort to war ( jus ad bellum) and the other governing the conduct of war ( jus in bello). The two sets of principles are regarded, in Michael Walzer’s words, as “logically independent. It is perfectly possible for a just war to be fought unjustly and for an unjust war to be fought in strict accordance with the rules.”1 Let us say that those who fight (...)
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  • Actions, Intentions, and Consequences: The Doctrine of Double Effect.Warren S. Quinn - 1989 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 18 (4):334-351.
    Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0048-3915%28198923%2918%3A4%3C334%3AAIACTD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P..
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  • Innocence and Responsibility in War.Lionel K. McPherson - 2004 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (4):485-506.
    Innocence is a notion that can prove controversial. Claims of innocence typically support not imposing burdens on the innocent when their conduct is relevantly unobjectionable. This paper examines innocence in the context of violent conflict between states or groups. Many thinkers about the morality of such violence want to establish a principle that would protect innocent civilians. Yet the common view in just war theory does not affirm the moral innocence of civilians. Similarly, the common view that soldiers have an (...)
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  • Political Theory and International Relations.Charles Beitz - 1979 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Ethics, Killing and War.Richard Norman - 1995 - Cambridge University Press.
    Can war ever be justified? Why is it wrong to kill? In this new book Richard Norman looks at these and other related questions, and thereby examines the possibility and nature of rational moral argument. Practical examples, such as the Gulf War and the Falklands War, are used to show that, whilst moral philosophy can offer no easy answers, it is a worthwhile enterprise which sheds light on many pressing contemporary problems. A combination of lucid exposition and original argument makes (...)
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  • Ethics, Killing and War.Richard Norman - 1995 - Ethics 107 (1):159-160.
  • Sharing the Costs of Political Injustices.Avia Pasternak - 2011 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (2):188-210.
    It is commonly thought that when democratic states act wrongly, they should bear the costs of the harm they cause. However, since states are collective agents, their financial burdens pass on to their individual citizens. This fact raises important questions about the proper distribution of the state’s collective responsibility for its unjust policies. This article identifies two opposing models for sharing this collective responsibility in democracies: first, in proportion to citizens’ personal association with the unjust policy; second, by giving each (...)
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  • Pirates and PMCs.George R. Lucas - 2009 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1):87-94.
    Originally presented at a forum sponsored by Concerned Philosophers for Peace at the Eastern Division annual meeting of the American Philosophical Association, this essay discusses two ethical challenges in foreign policy likely to be confronted by the new U.S. presidential administration. The increased reliance on private military contractors, including security contractors, poses a number of difficulties, the most troubling of which is the erosion of civil-military relations. Modern military campaigns cannot be waged without some degree of reliance on the logistical (...)
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  • Killing Soldiers.Gerhard Øverland - 2006 - Ethics and International Affairs 20 (4):455–475.
    A riddle in the ethics of war concerns whether lethal defensive force may be justifiably used against aggressing soldiers who are morally innocent.
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  • Moral Responsibilities and the Conflicting Demands of Jus Post Bellum.Mark Evans - 2009 - Ethics and International Affairs 23 (2):147-164.
    The inclusion of jus post bellum in just war theory may be justified. But, according to Evans, it becomes problematic when confronted with tenets of "just occupation," namely that sovereignty or self-determination should be restored to the occupied people as soon as is reasonably possible.
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  • Just War Theory and the Privatization of Military Force.James Pattison - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (2):143–162.
    Private military companies are taking over a growing number of roles traditionally performed by the regular military. This article uses the framework of just war theory to consider the central normative issues raised by this privatization of military force.
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  • Just Cause for War.Jeff McMahan - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (3):1-21.
    A just cause for war is a type of wrong that may make those responsible for it morally liable to military attack as a means of preventing or rectifying it. This claim has implications that conflict with assumptions of the current theory of just war.
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  • Justice After War.Brian Orend - 2002 - Ethics and International Affairs 16 (1):43-56.
    Drawing on the concepts and values of the just war tradition, this article presents an account of jus post bellum as applied to the Persian Gulf War, Bosnia and Kosovo, and the war against terrorism in Afghanistan.
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  • Humanitarian Imperialism: Response to "Ending Tyranny in Iraq".Terry Nardin - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (2):21-26.
    Tesón's “humanitarian rationales” for the war in Iraq strain the traditional understanding of humanitarian intervention: The first, that the war was fought to overthrow a tyrant. The second, that it was a defense strategy establishing democratic regimes peacefully, but by force if necessary.
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  • The Preventive Use of Force: A Cosmopolitan Institutional Proposal.Allen Buchanan & Robert O. Keohane - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (1):1-22.
    Accountability is the key to ensuring the fairness of rules governing the preventive use of force. Buchanan and Keohane propose a scheme that would make those promoting and those rejecting the preventive use of force more accountable.
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  • Self-Defense in International Law and Rights of Persons.Fernando R. Tesón - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (1):87-91.
  • War as Self-Defense.Jeff McMahan - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (1):75-80.
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  • Justifications of the Iraq War Examined.Richard B. Miller - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (1):43–67.
    This paper critically assesses three claims on behalf of the Iraq war made by the Bush administration and by various defenders of the war. Then it steps back from the specifics of these three rationales to ask whether they are in fact of the same sort.
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  • The Slippery Slope to Preventive War.Neta C. Crawford - 2003 - Ethics and International Affairs 17 (1):30-36.
    The character of potential threats becomes extremely important in evaluating the legitimacy of the new preemption doctrine, and thus the assertion that the United States faces rogue enemies who oppose everything about the United States must be carefully evaluated.
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  • Liability and Just Cause.Thomas Hurka - 2007 - Ethics and International Affairs 21 (2):199-218.
    This paper is a response to Jeff McMahan's "Just Cause for War". It defends a more permissive, and more traditional view of just war liability against McMahan's claims.
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  • National Responsibility and Global Justice.David Miller - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    This chapter outlines the main ideas of my book National responsibility and global justice. It begins with two widely held but conflicting intuitions about what global justice might mean on the one hand, and what it means to be a member of a national community on the other. The first intuition tells us that global inequalities of the magnitude that currently exist are radically unjust, while the second intuition tells us that inequalities are both unavoidable and fair once national responsibility (...)
  • Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law.Allen E. Buchanan - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    This book articulates a systematic vision of an international legal system grounded in the commitment to justice for all persons. It provides a probing exploration of the moral issues involved in disputes about secession, ethno-national conflict, "the right of self-determination of peoples," human rights, and the legitimacy of the international legal system itself. Buchanan advances vigorous criticisms of the central dogmas of international relations and international law, arguing that the international legal system should make justice, not simply peace among states, (...)
  • War and Self Defense.David Rodin - 2002 - Oxford University Press.
    When is it right to go to war? The most persuasive answer to this question has always been 'in self-defense'. In a penetrating new analysis, bringing together moral philosophy, political science, and law, David Rodin shows what's wrong with this answer. He proposes a comprehensive new theory of the right of self-defense which resolves many of the perplexing questions that have dogged both jurists and philosophers. -/- Winner of the American Philosophical Association Frank Chapman Sharp Memorial Prize.
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  • Just War and Regular War: Competing Paradigms.Gregory Reichberg - 2008 - In David Rodin & Henry Shue (eds.), Just and Unjust Warriors: The Moral and Legal Status of Soldiers. Oxford University Press. pp. 193--213.
     
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  • War and Self-Defense.David Rodin - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (1):63–68.
    When is it right to go to war? The most persuasive answer to this question has always been 'in self-defense'. In a penetrating new analysis, bringing together moral philosophy, political science, and law, David Rodin shows what's wrong with this answer. He proposes a comprehensive new theory of the right of self-defense which resolves many of the perplexing questions that have dogged both jurists and moral philosophers. By applying the theory of self-defense to international relations, Rodin produces a far-reaching critique (...)
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  • Humanitarian Imperialism.Terry Nardin - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (2):21–26.
    Tesón's “humanitarian rationales” for the war in Iraq strain the traditional understanding of humanitarian intervention: The first, that the war was fought to overthrow a tyrant. The second, that it was a defense strategy establishing democratic regimes peacefully, but by force if necessary.
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  • What's Wrong with Preventive War? The Moral and Legal Basis for the Preventive Use of Force.Whitley Kaufman - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (3):23–38.
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  • Human Security and Liberal Peace.Endre Begby & J. Peter Burgess - 2009 - Public Reason 1 (1):91-104.
    This paper addresses a recent wave of criticisms of liberal peacebuilding operations. We decompose the critics’ argument into two steps, one which offers a diagnosis of what goes wrong when things go wrong in peacebuilding operations, and a second, which argues on the basis of the first step that there is some deep principled flaw in the very idea of liberal peacebuilding. We show that the criticism launched in the argument’s first step is valid and important, but that the second (...)
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  • The Metaphysics of Morals.Immanuel Kant - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Metaphysics of Morals is Kant's major work in applied moral philosophy in which he deals with the basic principles of rights and of virtues. It comprises two parts: the 'Doctrine of Right', which deals with the rights which people have or can acquire, and the 'Doctrine of Virtue', which deals with the virtues they ought to acquire. Mary Gregor's translation, revised for publication in the Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy series, is the only complete translation of the (...)
     
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  • The Limits of Morality.Shelly Kagan - 1989 - Oxford University Press.
    Most people believe that there are limits to the sacrifices that morality can demand. Although it would often be meritorious, we are not, in fact, morally required to do all that we can to promote overall good. What's more, most people also believe that certain types of acts are simply forbidden, morally off limits, even when necessary for promoting the overall good. In this provocative analysis Kagan maintains that despite the intuitive appeal of these views, they cannot be adequately defended. (...)
  • Stateless National Groups, International Justice and Asymmetrical Warfare.Anna Moltchanova - 2005 - Journal of Political Philosophy 13 (2):194–215.
  • Judging the Judges: Evaluating Challenges to Proper Authority in Just War Theory.Davis Brown - 2011 - Journal of Military Ethics 10 (3):133-147.
    Abstract The article criticizes the trend of reformulating the traditional just-war criterion of Proper Authority, which was designed to de-legitimize force by non-state actors, into a requirement that decisions to resort to force be multilateral. The article illustrates several shortcomings of the judgment processes of the UN Security Council and General Assembly, the World Court, and states? populations, and argues among other things that reformulating Proper Authority would render other criteria meaningless, especially Just Cause. Finally, the article rebuts the strongest (...)
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  • Michael Walzer's Concept of 'Supreme Emergency'.Martin L. Cook - 2007 - Journal of Military Ethics 6 (2):138-151.
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  • Response.Michael Walzer - 2007 - Journal of Military Ethics 6 (2):168-171.
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  • "The Law of Peoples: With" The Idea of Public Reason Revisited,".John Rawls - 2002 - Philosophy East and West 52 (3):396-396.
  • Failures of Just War Theory: Terror, Harm, and Justice.F. M. Kamm - 2004 - Ethics 114 (4):650-692.
  • A Realistic and Effective Constraint on the Resort to Force? Pre-Commitment to Jus in Bello and Jus Post Bellum as Part of the Criterion of Right Intention.Annalisa Koeman - 2007 - Journal of Military Ethics 6 (3):198-220.
    This paper explores Brian Orend's contribution to the just war tradition, specifically his proposed jus post bellum criteria and his idea of pre-commitment to jus in bello and jus post bellum as part of an expanded jus ad bellum criterion of right intention. The latter is based on his interpretation of Kant's work: that as part of the original decision to begin a war, a state should commit itself to certain rules of conduct and appropriate war termination, and if it (...)
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  • War and Intention.Darrell Cole - 2011 - Journal of Military Ethics 10 (3):174-191.
    Abstract Right intention is one of the staple criteria of traditional just war theory. In classical terms, right intention is met when a belligerent aims to achieve a just and peaceful order. I will address the problem of determining when a belligerent has satisfied the criterion of right intention. I will argue that right intention is determined by observing a belligerent's acts during and after a conflict. Intention is not merely a private mental act known ultimately only by the people (...)
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  • Liberty, Statehood and Sovereignty: Walzer on Mill on Non-Intervention.Endre Begby - 2003 - Journal of Military Ethics 2 (1):46-62.
    The purpose of this paper is to critically assess Michael Walzer's use of John Stuart Mill's text 'A Few Words on Non-Intervention' in his seminal work Just and Unjust Wars. Although point by point, I think Walzer's reading of Mill is largely sound, I will argue that the specific narrative into which Walzer orders these points places a highly tendentious spin on the original text. More precisely, Walzer's way of articulating the negative aspects of Mill's argument--the general presumption against intervention--obscures (...)
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  • Jus Post Bellum.Brian Orend - 2000 - Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (1):117–137.
  • From Humanitarian Intervention to Assassination: Human Rights and Political Violence.Andrew Altman & Christopher Heath Wellman - 2008 - Ethics 118 (2):228-257.
  • Guns, Food, and Liability to Attack in War.Cécile Fabre - 2009 - Ethics 120 (1):36-63.
  • Humanitarian Intervention After Iraq: Just War and International Law Perspectives.James Turner Johnson - 2006 - Journal of Military Ethics 5 (2):114-127.