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  1. Judgement of Suffering in the Case of a Euthanasia Request in The Netherlands.J. A. C. Rietjens, D. G. van Tol, M. Schermer & A. van Der Heide - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):502-507.
    Introduction: In The Netherlands, physicians have to be convinced that the patient suffers unbearably and hopelessly before granting a request for euthanasia. The extent to which general practitioners (GPs), consulted physicians and members of the euthanasia review committees judge this criterion similarly was evaluated. Methods: 300 GPs, 150 consultants and 27 members of review committees were sent a questionnaire with patient descriptions. Besides a “standard case” of a patient with physical suffering and limited life expectancy, the descriptions included cases in (...)
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  • Assessing Research Risks Systematically: The Net Risks Test.D. Wendler & F. G. Miller - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (8):481-486.
    Dual-track assessment directs research ethics committees to assess the risks of research interventions based on the unclear distinction between therapeutic and non-therapeutic interventions. The net risks test, in contrast, relies on the clinically familiar method of assessing the risks and benefits of interventions in comparison to the available alternatives and also focuses attention of the RECs on the central challenge of protecting research participants.Research guidelines around the world recognise that clinical research is ethical only when the risks to participants are (...)
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  • A Framework for Risk-Benefit Evaluations in Biomedical Research.Wendler Annette Rid David - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (2):141-179.
    One of the key ethical requirements for biomedical research is that it have an acceptable risk-benefit profile (Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady 2000). The International Conference of Harmonization guidelines mandate that clinical trials should be initiated and continued only if “the anticipated benefits justify the risks” (1996). Guidelines from the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences state that biomedical research is acceptable only if the “potential benefits and risks are reasonably balanced” (2002). U.S. federal regulations require that the “risks to (...)
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  • Euthanasia in The Netherlands--Down the Slippery Slope?R. Gillon - 1999 - Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (1):3-4.
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  • The Ethical Analysis of Risk.Charles Weijer - 2000 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (4):344-361.