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  1. Continuous Sedation Until Death: Moral Justifications of Physicians and Nurses—a Content Analysis of Opinion Pieces. [REVIEW]Sam Rys, Freddy Mortier, Luc Deliens, Reginald Deschepper, Margaret Pabst Battin & Johan Bilsen - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):533-542.
    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. A content analysis of opinion pieces in medical and nursing literature was conducted to examine how clinicians define and describe CSD, and how they justify this practice morally. Most publications were written by physicians and published in palliative or general medicine journals. Terminal Sedation and Palliative Sedation are (...)
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  • Three Concepts of Suffering.Steven D. Edwards - 2003 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (1):59-66.
    This paper has three main aims. The first is to provide a critical assessment of two rival concepts of suffering, that proposed by Cassell and that proposed in this journal by van Hooft. The second aim of the paper is to sketch a more plausible concept of suffering, one which derives from a Wittgensteinian view of linguistic meaning. This more plausible concept is labeled an ‘intuitive concept’. The third aim is to assess the prospects for scientific understanding of suffering.
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  • Physician-Assisted Death in Perspective: Assessing the Dutch Experience.Stuart J. Youngner & Gerrit K. Kimsma (eds.) - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is the first comprehensive report and analysis of the Dutch euthanasia experience over the last three decades. In contrast to most books about euthanasia, which are written by authors from countries where the practice is illegal and therefore practised only secretly, this book analyzes empirical data and real-life clinical behavior. Its essays were written by the leading Dutch scholars and clinicians who shaped euthanasia policy and who have studied, evaluated and helped regulate it. Some of them have themselves (...)
     
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  • The Moral Difference or Equivalence Between Continuous Sedation Until Death and Physician-Assisted Death: Word Games or War Games?: A Qualitative Content Analysis of Opinion Pieces in the Indexed Medical and Nursing Literature. [REVIEW]Sam Rys, Reginald Deschepper, Freddy Mortier, Luc Deliens, Douglas Atkinson & Johan Bilsen - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):171-183.
    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical–ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of “slow euthanasia.” A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and (...)
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  • Perspectives on Human Suffering.Jeff Malpas & Norelle Lickiss (eds.) - 2012 - Springer.
    This volume brings together a range of interdisciplinary perspectives on a topic of central importance, but which has otherwise tended to be approached from within just one or another disciplinary framework. Most of the essays contained here incorporate some degree of interdisciplinarity in their own approach, but the volume nevertheless divides into three main sections: Philosophical considerations; Humanities approaches; Legal, medical, and therapeutic contexts. The volume includes essays by philosophers, medical practitioners and researchers, historians, lawyers, literary, Classical, and Judaic scholars. (...)
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  • Proportionality, Terminal Suffering and the Restorative Goals of Medicine.Lynn A. Jansen & Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2002 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (4-5):321-337.
    Recent years have witnessed a growing concern that terminally illpatients are needlessly suffering in the dying process. This has ledto demands that physicians become more attentive in the assessment ofsuffering and that they treat their patients as `whole persons.'' Forthe most part, these demands have not fallen on deaf ears. It is nowwidely accepted that the relief of suffering is one of the fundamentalgoals of medicine. Without question this is a positive development.However, while the importance of treating suffering has generally (...)
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  • The Nature of Suffering and the Goals of Medicine.Eric J. Cassell - 1991 - Oxford University Press.
    Here is a thoroughly updated edition of a classic in palliative medicine. Two new chapters have been added to the 1991 edition, along with a new preface summarizing where progress has been made and where it has not in the area of pain management. This book addresses the timely issue of doctor-patient relationships arguing that the patient, not the disease, should be the central focus of medicine. Included are a number of compelling patient narratives. Praise for the first edition "Well (...)
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  • Terminal Sedation: Source of a Restless Ethical Debate.J. J. M. van Delden - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (4):187.
    Slow euthanasia or a good palliative intervention?There are many ways in which doctors influence the circumstances and/or the timing of a patient’s death. Some of these are accepted as normal medical practice—for instance, when a disproportional treatment is forgone, others are considered tolerable only under strict conditions or even intolerable, such as non-voluntary active euthanasia. A relatively new phenomenon in the ethical discussion on end-of-life decisions is terminal sedation. Terminal sedation is used in patients with terminal illnesses where normal medical (...)
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  • Suffering and the Goals of Medicine.Stan van Hooft - 1998 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 1 (2):125-131.
    Taking as its starting point a recent statement of the Goals of Medicine published by the Hastings Centre, this paper argues against the dualistic distinction between pain and suffering. It uses an Aristotelian conception of the person to suggest that malady, pain, and disablement are objective forms of suffering not dependent upon any state of consciousness of the victim. As a result, medicine effectively relieves suffering when it cures malady and relieves pain. There is no medical mission to confront the (...)
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  • Suffering and the Goals of Medicine.Stan van Hooft - 1998 - Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (2):125-131.
    Taking as its starting point a recent statement of the Goals of Medicine published by the Hastings Centre, this paper argues against the dualistic distinction between pain and suffering. It uses an Aristotelian conception of the person to suggest that malady, pain, and disablement are objective forms of suffering not dependent upon any state of consciousness of the victim. As a result, medicine effectively relieves suffering when it cures malady and relieves pain. There is no medical mission to confront the (...)
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  • Sedierung am Lebensende: Empfehlungen der AG Ethik am Lebensende in der Akademie für Ethik in der Medizin.Gerald Neitzke, Frank Oehmichen, Hans Joachim Schliep & Dietrich Wördehoff - 2010 - Ethik in der Medizin 22 (2):139-147.
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  • ‘Early Terminal Sedation’ is a Distinct Entity.Victor Cellarius - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (1):46-54.
    ABSTRACTThere has been much discussion regarding the acceptable use of sedation for palliation. A particularly contentious practice concerns deep, continuous sedation given to patients who are not imminently dying and given without provision of hydration or nutrition, with the end result that death is hastened. This has been called ‘early terminal sedation’. Early terminal sedation is a practice composed of two legally and ethically accepted treatment options. Under certain conditions, patients have the right to reject hydration and nutrition, even if (...)
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  • Is Continuous Sedation at the End of Life an Ethically Preferable Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide?Kasper Raus, Sigrid Sterckx & Freddy Mortier - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):32 - 40.
    The relatively new practice of continuous sedation at the end of life (CS) is increasingly being debated in the clinical and ethical literature. This practice received much attention when a U.S. Supreme Court ruling noted that the availability of CS made legalization of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) unnecessary, as CS could alleviate even the most severe suffering. This view has been widely adopted. In this article, we perform an in-depth analysis of four versions of this ?argument of preferable alternative.? Our goal (...)
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  • Terminal Sedation: Pulling the Sheet Over Our Eyes.Margaret P. Battin - 2008 - Hastings Center Report 38 (5):pp. 27-30.
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  • 'Unbearable Suffering': A Qualitative Study on the Perspectives of Patients Who Request Assistance in Dying.M. K. Dees, M. J. Vernooij-Dassen, W. J. Dekkers, K. C. Vissers & C. van Weel - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):727-734.
    Background One of the objectives of medicine is to relieve patients' suffering. As a consequence, it is important to understand patients' perspectives of suffering and their ability to cope. However, there is poor insight into what determines their suffering and their ability to bear it. Purpose To explore the constituent elements of suffering of patients who explicitly request euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and to better understand unbearable suffering from the patients' perspective. Patients and methods A qualitative study using in-depth (...)
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  • The Goals of Medicine-Setting New Priorities.Daniel Callahan - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (6).
     
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  • Sedation in the Management of Refractory Symptoms: Guidelines for Evaluation and Treatment.Nathan I. Cherny & Russell K. Portenoy - forthcoming - Journal of Palliative Care.
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