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  1. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals.J. B. Schneewind (ed.) - 1983 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    A splendid edition. Schneewind's illuminating introduction succinctly situates the _Enquiry_ in its historical context, clarifying its relationship to Calvinism, to Newtonian science, and to earlier moral philosophers, and providing a persuasive account of Hume's ethical naturalism. --Martha C. Nussbaum, Brown University.
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  • Realism and Constructivism in Twentieth-Century Moral Philosophy.Christine M. Korsgaard - 2003 - Journal of Philosophical Research 28 (Supplement):99-122.
    In this paper I trace the development of one of the central debates of late twentieth-century moral philosophy—the debate between realism and what Rawls called “constructivism.” Realism, I argue, is a reactive position that arises in response to almost every attempt to give a substantive explanation of morality. It results from the realist’s belief that such explanations inevitably reduce moral phenomena to natural phenomena. I trace this belief, and the essence of realism, to a view about the nature of concepts—that (...)
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  • Priceless Goods: How Should Life-Saving Drugs Be Priced?Ian Maitland - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (4):451-480.
    Abstract: This article examines the ethical issues raised by the pricing of priceless goods. Priceless goods are defined as ones that are widely held to have some special non-market value that makes them unsuited for buying and selling. One subset of priceless goods is prescription drugs—particularly life-saving and life-enhancing ones. Drug makers are under pressure to price their medicines responsibly, which means to restrain their prices (and profits). However, this article argues that it is precisely because life-saving and life-enhancing medicines (...)
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  • Priceless Goods: How Should Life-Saving Drugs Be Priced?Ian Maitland - 2002 - Business Ethics Quarterly 12 (4):451-480.
    This article examines the ethical issues raised by the pricing of priceless goods. Priceless goods are defined as ones that are widely held to have some special non-market value that makes them unsuited for buying and selling. One subset of priceless goods isprescription drugs—particularly life-saving and life-enhancing ones. Drug makers are under pressure to price their medicines responsibly, which means to restrain their prices (and profits). However, this article argues that it is precisely because life-saving and life-enhancing medicines are priceless (...)
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  • What is Constructivism in Ethics and Metaethics?Sharon Street - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (5):363-384.
    Most agree that when it comes to so-called 'first-order' normative ethics and political philosophy, constructivist views are a powerful family of positions. When it comes to metaethics, however, there is serious disagreement about what, if anything, constructivism has to contribute. In this paper I argue that constructivist views in ethics include not just a family of substantive normative positions, but also a distinct and highly attractive metaethical view. I argue that the widely accepted 'proceduralist characterization' of constructivism in ethics is (...)
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  • Self-Constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity.Christine M. Korsgaard - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Agency and identity -- Necessitation -- Acts and actions -- Aristotle and Kant -- Agency and practical identity -- The metaphysics of normativity -- Constitutive standards -- The constitution of life -- In defense of teleology -- The paradox of self-constitution -- Formal and substantive principles of reason -- Formal versus substantive -- Testing versus weighing -- Maximizing and prudence -- Practical reason and the unity of the will -- The empiricist account of normativity -- The rationalist account of normativity (...)
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  • The Idea of Human Rights.Charles R. Beitz - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Human rights have become one of the most important moral concepts in global political life over the last 60 years. Charles Beitz, one of the world's leading philosophers, offers a compelling new examination of the idea of a human right.
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  • Constructing Justice for Existing Practice: Rawls and the Status Quo.Aaron James - 2005 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 (3):281-316.
  • Constructivism in Practical Philosophy.James Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.) - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume presents twelve original papers on the idea that moral objectivity is to be understood in terms of a suitably constructed social point of view that all can accept.
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  • Justice as Fairness: A Restatement.John Rawls (ed.) - 2001 - Harvard University Press.
    This book originated as lectures for a course on political philosophy that Rawls taught regularly at Harvard in the 1980s.
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  • Collected Papers.John Rawls - 1999 - Harvard University Press.
    Some of these essays articulate views of justice and liberalism distinct from those found in the two books.
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  • Justice and the Priority of Politics to Morality &Ast.Andrea Sangiovanni - 2008 - Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (2):137-164.
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  • An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals.David Hume & Tom L. Beauchamp - 1998 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 190 (2):230-231.
  • External Justifications and Institutional Roles.A. John Simmons - 1996 - Journal of Philosophy 93 (1):28-36.
    In his paper "Role Obligations," Michael Hardimon defends an account of the nature and justification of institutional obligations that he takes to be clearly superior to the "standard" voluntarist view. Hardimon argues that this standard view presents a "misleading and distorted" picture of role obligations (and of morality generally); and in its best form he claims this view still "leaves out" of its understanding of even contractual role obligations an "absolutely vital factor". I argue against Hardimon that a related version (...)
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  • External Justifications and Institutional Roles.A. John Simmons - 1996 - Journal of Philosophy 93 (1):28-36.
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  • Examining the Ethics of Clinical Use of Unproven Interventions Outside of Clinical Trials During the Ebola Epidemic.Seema K. Shah, David Wendler & Marion Danis - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):11-16.
    The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa began in the spring of 2014 and has since caused the deaths of over 6,000 people. Since there are no approved treatments or prevention modalities specifically targeted at Ebola Virus Disease , debate has focused on whether unproven interventions should be offered to Ebola patients outside of clinical trials. Those engaged in the debate have responded rapidly to a complex and evolving crisis, however, and this debate has not provided much opportunity for in-depth (...)
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  • Collected Papers. [REVIEW]Thomas E. Hill & John Rawls - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy 98 (5):269-272.
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  • The Heart of Human Rights.Allen Buchanan - 2013 - Oup Usa.
    This book is the first in-depth attempt to provide a moral assessment of the heart of the modern human rights enterprise: the system of international legal human rights.
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  • Second Treatise on Government.John Locke - 1690/1980 - In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell.
  • Justice as Fairness: A Restatement.C. L. Ten - 2003 - Mind 112 (447):563-566.
  • An analysis of common ethical justifications for compassionate use programs for experimental drugs.Kasper Raus - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):60.
    When a new intervention or drug is developed, this has to pass through various phases of clinical testing before it achieves market approval, which can take many years. This raises an issue for drugs which could benefit terminally ill patients. These patients might set their hopes on the experimental drug but are unable to wait since they are likely to pass away before the drug is available. As a means of nevertheless getting access to experimental drug, many seriously ill and (...)
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  • Ethical Justifications for Access to Unapproved Medical Interventions: An Argument for (Limited) Patient Obligations.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (11):3-15.
    Many health care systems include programs that allow patients in exceptional circumstances to access medical interventions of as yet unproven benefit. In this article we consider the ethical justifications for?and demands on?these special access programs (SAPs). SAPs have a compassionate basis: They give patients with limited options the opportunity to try interventions that are not yet approved by standard regulatory processes. But while they signal that health care systems can and will respond to individual suffering, SAPs have several disadvantages, including (...)
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  • Justice and the Priority of Politics to Morality.Andrea Sangiovanni - 2008 - Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (2):137–164.
  • Ethics of Clinical Science in a Public Health Emergency: Drug Discovery at the Bedside.Sarah Jl Edwards - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (9):3-14.
    Clinical research under the usual regulatory constraints may be difficult or even impossible in a public health emergency. Regulators must seek to strike a good balance in granting as wide therapeutic access to new drugs as possible at the same time as gathering sound evidence of safety and effectiveness. To inform current policy, I reexamine the philosophical rationale for restricting new medicines to clinical trials, at any stage and for any population of patients (which resides in the precautionary principle), to (...)
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  • Toward a Pluralist and Teleological Theory of Normativity.David Copp - 2009 - Philosophical Issues 19 (1):21-37.
  • The Impossibility of a Morality Internal to Medicine.Robert M. Veatch - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):621 – 642.
    After distinguishing two different meanings of the notion of a morality internal to medicine and considering a hypothetical case of a society that relied on its surgeons to eunuchize priest/cantors to permit them to play an important religious/cultural role, this paper examines three reasons why morality cannot be derived from reflection on the ends of the practice of medicine: (1) there exist many medical roles and these have different ends or purposes, (2) even within any given medical role, there exists (...)
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  • A Method in Search of a Purpose: The Internal Morality of Medicine.John D. Arras - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):643 – 662.
    I begin this commentary with an expanded typology of theories that endorse an internal morality of medicine. I then subject these theories to a philosophical critique. I argue that the more robust claims for an internal morality fail to establish a stand-alone method for bioethics because they ignore crucial non-medical values, violate norms of justice and fail to establish the normativity of medical values. I then argue that weaker versions of internalism avoid such problems, but at the cost of failing (...)
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  • Two Concepts of Medical Ethics and Their Implications for Medical Ethics Education.Rosamond Rhodes - 2002 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 27 (4):493 – 508.
    People who discuss medical ethics or bioethics come to very different conclusions about the levels of agreement in the field and the implications of consensus among health care professionals. In this paper I argue that these disagreements turn on a confusion of two distinct senses of medical ethics. I differentiate (1) medical ethics as a subject in applied ethics from (2) medical ethics as the professional moral commitments of health care professions. I then use the distinction to explain its significant (...)
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  • The Internal Morality of Clinical Medicine: A Paradigm for the Ethics of the Helping and Healing Professions.Edmund D. Pellegrino - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):559 – 579.
    The moral authority for professional ethics in medicine customarily rests in some source external to medicine, i.e., a pre-existing philosophical system of ethics or some form of social construction, like consensus or dialogue. Rather, internal morality is grounded in the phenomena of medicine, i.e., in the nature of the clinical encounter between physician and patient. From this, a philosophy of medicine is derived which gives moral force to the duties, virtues and obligations of physicians qua physicians. Similarly, an ethic specific (...)
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  • The Internal Morality of Medicine: An Evolutionary Perspective.Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (6):581 – 599.
    A basic question of medical ethics is whether the norms governing medical practice should be understood as the application of principles and rules of the common morality to medicine or whether some of these norms are internal or proper to medicine. In this article we describe and defend an evolutionary perspective on the internal morality of medicine that is defined in terms of the goals of clinical medicine and a set of duties that constrain medical practice in pursuit of these (...)
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  • Expressivism and Constructivism.James Lenman - 2012 - In Jimmy Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.), Constructivism in Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
     
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  • Constructing Protagorean Objectivity.Errnanno Bencivenga, Nadeem Hussein, Christine Korsgaard, James Lenman, Peter de Mameffe, James Nickel, David Plunkett, James Pryor, Andrews Reath & Michael Ridge - 2012 - In Jimmy Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.), Constructivism in Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    At least since the late Early Modern period, the Holy Grail of ethics, for many philosophers, has been to say how ethical values could have a kind of protagorean objectivity: values are to be both fully objective as values and yet depend on us by their very nature. More than any other contemporary foundational approach it is “constructivist” theories, such as those due to Rawls, Scanlon, and Korsgaard, which have consciously sought to explain how protagorean objectivity is a real possibility. (...)
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  • Two Ways to Think About Justice.David Miller - 2002 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 1 (1):5-28.
    This paper contrasts universalist approaches to justice with contextualist approaches. Universalists hold that basic principles of justice are invariant — they apply in every circumstance in which questions of justice arise. Contextualists hold that different principles apply in different contexts, and that there is no underlying master principle that applies in all. The paper argues that universalists cannot explain why so many different theories of justice have been put forward, nor why there is so much diversity in the judgements that (...)
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  • Introduction.James Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer - 2012 - In Jimmy Lenman & Yonatan Shemmer (eds.), Constructivism in Practical Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
     
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