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  1. Do Ethical Values Work? A Quantitative Study of the Impact of Fair Trade Coffee on Consumer Behavior.Patrice Cailleba & Herbert Casteran - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (4):613-624.
    This study investigates the large French fair trade (FT) market and the importance of FT coffee within it, in an attempt to identify some general features of FT consumers. On the basis of 7,587 transactions, the authors abo determine the impact of FT characteristics on customer behavior. The main result is somewhat surprising: FT coffee purchases seem to involve a temporary commitment as FT coffee consumers appear less loyal than traditional coffee consumers. The authors derive some business and academic implications.
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  • Ethical Decision Making in Fair Trade Companies.Iain A. Davies & Andrew Crane - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 45 (1-2):79 - 92.
    This paper reports on a study of ethical decision-making in a fair trade company. This can be seen to be a crucial arena for investigation since fair trade firms not only have a specific ethical mission in terms of helping growers out of poverty, but they tend to be perceived as (and are often marketed on the basis of) having an "ethical" image. Eschewing a straightforward test of extant ethical decision models, we adopt Thompson''s proposal for a more contextualist understanding (...)
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  • Collective Social Entrepreneurship: Collaboratively Shaping Social Good. [REVIEW]A. Wren Montgomery, Peter A. Dacin & M. Tina Dacin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (3):375-388.
    In this paper, we move beyond the typical focus on the role of individuals in leading social change to examine "collective social entrepreneurship", the role multiple actors collaboratively play to address social problems, create new institutions, and dismantle outdated institutional arrangements. Specifically, we examine collective social entrepreneurship across a diverse range of collaborative activities including movements, alliances and markets for social good. We identify resource utilization approaches and three associated sets of activities that illustrate the work of collective social entrepreneurs—framing, (...)
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  • Business Executives' Perceptions of Ethical Leadership and Its Development.Catherine Marsh - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (3):565-582.
    This paper summarized the findings of a qualitative study that examines the perceptions of ethical leadership held by those who perceived themselves to be ethical leaders, and how life experiences shaped the values called upon when making ethical decisions. The experiences of 28 business executives were shared with the researcher, beginning with the recollection of a critical incident that detailed an ethical issue with which each executive had been involved. With the critical incident in mind, each executive told the personal (...)
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  • Dveloping a Nomatively Grounded Research Agenda for Fair Trade Examining the Case of Canada. [REVIEW]Darryl Reed, Bob Thomson, Ian Hussey & Jean-Frédéric LeMay - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):151 - 179.
    This paper examines two issues related to research of certified fair trade goods. The first is the question of how agendas for fair trade research should be developed. The second issue is the existence of major gaps in the fair trade literature, including the study of the particular features of fair trade practice in individual northern countries. In taking up the first of these issues, the paper proposes that normative analysis should provide the basis for developing research agendas. Such an (...)
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  • The Dynamics of Fair Trade as a Mixed-Form Market.Leonardo Becchetti & Benjamin Huybrechts - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (4):733-750.
    This article analyses the Fair Trade sector as a “mixed-form market,” i.e., a market in which different types of players (in this case, nonprofit, co-operative and for-profit organizations) coexist and compete. The purposes of this article are (1) to understand the factors that have led Fair Trade to become a mixed-form market and (2) to propose some trails to understand the market dynamics that result from the interactions between the different types of players. We start by defining briefly Fair Trade, (...)
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  • Ἐμπάθɛια and Caritas: The Role of Religion in Fair Trade Consumption.Caroline Josephine Doran & Samuel Michael Natale - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (1):1-15.
    There is much still to learn about the nature of fair trade consumers. In light of the Pope’s encyclical Caritas in Veritate, this article sought to advance the current understanding by investigating the role of religion in fair trade consumption. In this study, fair trade consumers and non-consumers across many religions as well as the non-religious described their consumption of fair trade products as well as the use of their religious beliefs in their purchase behavior. It appears that the non-religious (...)
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  • Explaining Consumer Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Gratitude and Altruistic Values. [REVIEW]Simona Romani, Silvia Grappi & Richard P. Bagozzi - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (2):193-206.
    Although a lot of research establishes consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility (CSR), little is known about the theoretical mechanisms for these reactions. We conduct a field experiment with adult consumers to test the hypothesis that the effects of perceived CSR on consumer reactions are mediated by felt gratitude and moderated by the magnitude of altruistic values held by consumers. Two classes of consumer reactions are considered: intentions to (1) say positive things about the company, and (2) participate in advocacy (...)
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  • Faith and Fair Trade: The Moderating Role of Contextual Religious Salience.Rommel O. Salvador, Altaf Merchant & Elizabeth A. Alexander - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 121 (3):353-371.
    Normative and historical arguments support the idea that religion potentially shapes decisions to support fair trade products. That said, the question of how religion influences organizational decision-makers to purchase fair trade products in a business-to-business context has remained largely unaddressed. This research examines the interactive effect of individual religious commitment and contextual religious salience on an individual’s willingness to pay a price premium for a fair trade product, when buying on behalf of an organization. Findings from two experimental studies reveal (...)
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  • Is There a “Fair” in Fair-Trade? Social Dominance Orientation Influences Perceptions of and Preferences for Fair-Trade Products.Jennifer Landa, Stacey R. Finkelstein & Kimberly Rios - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1):171-180.
    In recent years, there has been a surge in popularity of the fair-trade industry, which seeks to improve trading conditions and to promote the rights of marginalized workers. Although research suggests that fair-trade products are perceived as promoting social and economic responsibility, some individuals—namely, those who seek to maintain existing group inequalities or those induced to think inequality is a good thing—may not share this perception. Across three studies, we found that SDO relates negatively to fair-trade consumption, and this relationship (...)
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  • Influence of National Institutions on the Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Food-Processing Industry: Differences Between France and Morocco.Jamal El Baz, Issam Laguir, Magalie Marais & Raffaele Staglianò - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (1):117-133.
    This paper analyzes how national institutions impact corporate social responsibility practices for small- and medium-sized enterprises in the food-processing industries of France and Morocco. In this study, CSR practices are defined around two main dimensions: corporate performance and the CSR approach. Qualitative data were collected during semi-structured interviews with SME managers in charge of CSR issues. We then performed a content analysis. Our study shows that there is a distinct difference between the CSR practices adopted by SMEs in France and (...)
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  • Developing a Normatively Grounded Research Agenda for Fair Trade: Examining the Case of Canada.Darryl Reed, Bob Thomson, Ian Hussey & Jean-Frédéric LeMay - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):151-179.
    This paper examines two issues related to research of certified fair trade goods. The first is the question of how agendas for fair trade research should be developed. The second issue is the existence of major gaps in the fair trade literature, including the study of the particular features of fair trade practice in individual northern countries. In taking up the first of these issues, the paper proposes that normative analysis should provide the basis for developing research agendas. Such an (...)
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  • Fair Trade in Italy: Too Much ‘Movement’ in the Shop?Leonardo Becchetti & Marco Costantino - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):181-203.
    We analyse the development of Fair Trade in Italy by examining its principles, structure, performance, dilemmas and potential solutions and identifying its main distinctive features. These lead us to develop a specifically Italian model. Fair Trade in Italy is younger than its more established North European counterparts and more focussed on broad social justice issues in addition to its concern to include marginalized producers. This normative difference has given rise to a social-economy-dominated value chain, although it has generated much lower (...)
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  • Fair Trade Managerial Practices: Strategy, Organisation and Engagement.Valéry Bezençon & Sam Blili - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (1):95-113.
    The number of distributors selling Fair Trade products is constantly increasing. What are their motivations to distribute Fair Trade products? How do they organise this distribution? Do they apply and communicate the Fair Trade values? This research, based on five case studies in Switzerland, aims at understanding and structuring the strategies and the managerial practices related to Fair Trade product distribution, as well as analysing if they denote an engagement with Fair Trade principles. The results show a high heterogeneity of (...)
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  • Ἐμπάθɛια and Caritas: The Role of Religion in Fair Trade Consumption. [REVIEW]Samuel Michael Natale - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (1):1 - 15.
    There is much still to learn about the nature of fair trade consumers. In light of the Pope's encyclical Caritas in Ventate, this article sought to advance the current understanding by investigating the role of religion in fair trade consumption. In this study, fair trade consumers and non-consumers across many religions as well as the nonreligious described their consumption of fair trade products as well as the use of their religious beliefs in their purchase behavior. It appears that the non-religious (...)
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  • The Role of Personal Values in Fair Trade Consumption.Caroline Josephine Doran - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (4):549-563.
    Research in the U. S. on fair trade consumption is sparse. Therefore, little is known as to what motivates U. S. consumers to buy fair trade products. This study sought to determine which values are salient to American fair trade consumption. The data were gathered via a Web-based version of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and were gleaned from actual consumers who purchase fair trade products from a range of Internet-based fair trade retailers. This study established that indeed there are (...)
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  • Ethical Entrepreneurship and Fair Trade.Johan Wempe - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 60 (3):211-220.
    Due to several recent scandals, Business Ethics is now firmly embraced. Whereas in the 1980s and early 1990s there were serious doubts expressed about combining ethics and business, the link now seems to have become self-evident. Fundamental questions about the tensions between business and ethics however continue to receive little attention. In this paper, based upon a debate concerning the Fair Trade company, the strains between business and ethics are analyzed. The article shows how several great thinkers have already considered (...)
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  • The Institutionalization of Fair Trade: More Than Just a Degraded Form of Social Action.Corinne Gendron, Véronique Bisaillon & Ana Isabel Otero Rance - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (S1):63 - 79.
    The context of economic globalization has contributed to the emergence of a new form of social action which has spread into the economic sphere in the form of the new social economic movements. The emblematic figure of this new generation of social movements is fair trade, which influences the economy towards political or social ends. Having emerged from multiple alternative trade practices, fair trade has gradually become institutionalized since the professionalization of World Shops, the arrival of fair trade products in (...)
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  • The Role of Social Capital in the Success of Fair Trade.Iain A. Davies & Lynette J. Ryals - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):317-338.
    Fair Trade companies have pulled off an astonishing tour de force. Despite their relatively small size and lack of resources, they have managed to achieve considerable commercial success and, in so doing, have put the fair trade issue firmly onto industry agendas. We analyse the critical role played by social capital in this success and demonstrate the importance of values as an exploitable competitive asset. Our research raises some uncomfortable questions about whether fair trade has 'sold out' to the mainstream (...)
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  • Religiosity and Consumer Ethics.Scott J. Vitell, Joseph G. P. Paolillo & Jatinder J. Singh - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (2):175-181.
    This article presents the results of an exploratory study that investigated the role that religiosity plays in determining consumer attitudes/beliefs in various situations regarding questionable consumer practices. Two dimensions of religiosity – intrinsic and extrinsic religiousness – were studied. Results indicated that an intrinsic religiousness was a significant determinant of consumer ethical beliefs, but extrinsic religiousness was not related to those beliefs.
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  • Through Thick and Thin: How Fair Trade Consumers Have Reacted to the Global Economic Recession. [REVIEW]Tierney Bondy & Vishal Talwar - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (3):365-383.
    Research on fair trade has flourished over the past decade as fair trade food products have gained popularity amongst consumers in many developed economies. This study examines the effects of recessionary economic conditions on fair trade consumers’ purchasing behaviour. An online survey was administered to 306 fair trade consumers from Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The results reveal a discrepancy among fair trade consumers as only consumers that purchase fair trade on an occasional basis adhered (...)
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  • Ethical Value-Added: Fair Trade and the Case of Café Femenino.J. J. McMurtry - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (S1):27 - 49.
    This article engages various critiques of Fair Trade, from its participation in commodification to providing a cover for "Fair-washing" corporations, and argues that Fair Trade has the potential to answer the challenges contained within them if and when it initiates an ongoing process of developing the "ethical valuedadded" content of the label. This argument is made in a number of ways. First, by distinguishing between economic and human development impacts and ethics, this article argues that these impacts are necessary but (...)
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  • Fair Trade Consumption: In Support of the Out-Group. [REVIEW]Caroline Josephine Doran - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):527 - 541.
    Two sets of self-transcendence values -universalism and benevolence - act as a source of motivation for the promotion of the welfare of the other rather than the self This article sought to determine the exact nature of the interaction between these sets of values and the consumption of fair trade products. In an earlier study, universalism values were found to have a significant influence on fair trade consumption whereas benevolence values did not, despite their shared goal and values theory. Additionally, (...)
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  • Religious Intensity, Evangelical Christianity, and Business Ethics: An Empirical Study.Justin G. Longenecker, Joseph A. McKinney & Carlos W. Moore - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (4):371-384.
    Research on the relationship between religious commitment and business ethics has produced widely varying results and made the impact of such commitment unclear. This study presents an empirical investigation based on a questionnaire survey of business managers and professionals in the United States yielding a database of 1234 respondents. Respondents evaluated the ethical acceptability of 16 business decisions. Findings varied with the way in which the religion variable was measured. Little relationship between religious commitment and ethical judgment was found when (...)
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  • Fair Trade Standards, Corporate Participation, and Social Movement Responses in the United States.Daniel Jaffee - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):267 - 285.
    This article examines the development of and contestation over the standards for certified fair trade, with particular attention to the U.S. context. It charts fair trade's rapid growth in the United States since the 1999 advent of formal certification, explores the controversies generated by the strategy of market mainstreaming in the sector, and focuses on five key issues that have generated particularly heated contention within the U.S. fair trade movement. It offers a theoretical framework based in the literatures on agrifood (...)
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  • Fair Trade and the Depersonalization of Ethics.Jérôme Ballet & Aurélie Carimentrand - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):317-330.
    Fair Trade has changed considerably since its early days. In this article, we argue that these changes have led to a depersonalization of ethics, thus raising serious questions about the future of Fair Trade. In particular, the depersonalization of ethics which is seen to accompany the current changes has led to greater variety in the interpretations of Fair Trade. Hiding these divergences behind the labels is increasing the risk that the movement will lose its credibility.
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  • Re-Embedding Global Agriculture: The International Organic and Fair Trade Movements. [REVIEW]Laura T. Raynolds - 2000 - Agriculture and Human Values 17 (3):297-309.
    The international organic agricultureand fair trade movements represent importantchallenges to the ecologically and sociallydestructive relations that characterize the globalagro-food system. Both movements critique conventionalagricultural production and consumption patterns andseek to create a more sustainable world agro-foodsystem. The international organic movement focuses onre-embedding crop and livestock production in ``naturalprocesses,'' encouraging trade in agriculturalcommodities produced under certified organicconditions and processed goods derived from thesecommodities. For its part, the fair trade movementfosters the re-embedding of international commodityproduction and distribution in ``equitable socialrelations,'' developing a (...)
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  • Influence of National Institutions on the Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Food-Processing Industry: Differences Between France and Morocco.Raffaele Staglianò, Magalie Marais, Issam Laguir & Jamal Baz - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (1):117-133.
    This paper analyzes how national institutions impact corporate social responsibility practices for small- and medium-sized enterprises in the food-processing industries of France and Morocco. In this study, CSR practices are defined around two main dimensions: corporate performance and the CSR approach. Qualitative data were collected during semi-structured interviews with SME managers in charge of CSR issues. We then performed a content analysis. Our study shows that there is a distinct difference between the CSR practices adopted by SMEs in France and (...)
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  • Fair Trade in Italy: Too Much 'Movement' in the Shop? [REVIEW]Leonardo Becchetti & Marco Costantino - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):181 - 203.
    We analyse the development of Fair Trade in Italy by examining its principles, structure, performance, dilemmas and potential solutions and identifying its main distinctive features. These lead us to develop a specifically Italian model. Fair Trade in Italy is younger than its more established North European counterparts and more focussed on broad social justice issues in addition to its concern to include marginalized producers. This normative difference has given rise to a social-economy-dominated value chain (with a partial corporate involvement uniquely (...)
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  • Fair Trade Organizations in Belgium: Unity in Diversity? [REVIEW]Benjamin Huybrechts - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):217 - 240.
    This article analyzes the dual process occurring in the field of Fair Trade organizations (FTOs) in Belgium. On the one hand, there has been a gradual diversification of the organizational landscape over time from pioneering volunteer-based non-profit organizations to a broader array including cooperatives, group structures, businesses and individual entrepreneurs exclusively devoted to FT. On the other hand, a process of networking is currently taking place among the various types of FTOs in the context of the creation of a Belgian (...)
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  • References.[author unknown] - 1989 - Theoria 55 (3):223.
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  • Are Stated Preferences Confirmed by Purchasing Behaviours? The Case of Fair Trade-Certified Bananas in Switzerland.Thuriane Mahé - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (S2):301-315.
    As the market share of Fair Trade food products in countries of the North grows, understanding consumer preferences with regard to this recent label is becoming increasingly important. This article reports on a test of the consistency of consumers' stated preferences, for which a survey was conducted at the place and time of actual purchase decisions. The aim of the survey was to further improve the understanding of consumers' stated motivations for buying 'Fair Trade' and 'organic Fair Trade' bananas in (...)
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  • Introduction: “Fair Trade in Different National Contexts”. [REVIEW]Benjamin Huybrechts & Darryl Reed - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):147-150.
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