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Stephen Clarke (2010). Transcendental Realisms in the Philosophy of Science: On Bhaskar and Cartwright.

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  1. General Introduction. I Margaret Acher, Roy Bashkar, Andrew Collier, Tony Lawson & Alan Norrie (Red.).Roy Bhaskar - 1998 - In Margaret Scotford Archer (ed.), Critical Realism: Essential Readings. Routledge.
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    Reclaiming Reality: A Critical Introduction to Contemporary Philosophy.Roy Bhaskar - 1989 - Verso.
    Originally published in 1989, Reclaiming Reality still provides the most accessible introduction to the increasingly influential multi-disciplinary and international body of thought, known as critical realism. It is designed to "underlabour" both for the sciences, especially the human sciences, and for the projects of human emancipation which such sciences may come to inform; and provides an enlightening intervention in current debates about realism and relativism, positivism and poststucturalism, modernism and postmodernism, etc. Elaborating his critical realist perspective on society, nature, science (...)
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  3. A Realist Theory of Science.Roy Bhaskar - 1978 - Routledge.
    In this book, Roy Bhaskar sets out to revindicate ontology, critiquing the reduction of being in favor of knowledge, which he calls the "epistemic fallacy".
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    Kant's Transcendental Strategy.John J. Callanan - 2006 - Philosophical Quarterly 56 (224):360–381.
    The interpretation of transcendental arguments remains a contentious issue for contemporary epistemology. It is usually agreed that they originated in Kant's theoretical philosophy and were intended to have some kind of anti-sceptical efficacy. I argue that the sceptic with whom Kant was concerned has been consistently misidentified. The actual sceptic was Hume, questioning whether the faculty of reason can justify any of our judgements whatsoever. His challenge is a sceptical argument regarding rule-following which engenders a vicious regress. Once this sceptical (...)
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  5. Reply.Nancy Cartwright - 2002 - Philosophical Books 43: 271–278.
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  6. Can Wholism Reconcile the Inaccuracy of Theory with the Accuracy of Prediction?Nancy Cartwright - 1991 - Synthese 89 (1):3 - 13.
    Work by social constructionists over the past decade and a half has reenforced the epistemological pessimist's despair that our system of science could ever be a mirror of nature. Realists argue that the amazing success of modern science at precise prediction and control indicates just the contrary. In response, social constructionists often point out that these successes seldom apply to the world as it comes naturally, but only as it is reconstructed in the scientist's laboratory. But this does not explain (...)
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    Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement.Nancy Cartwright - 1989 - Oxford University Press.
    Ever since David Hume, empiricists have barred powers and capacities from nature. In this book Cartwright argues that capacities are essential in our scientific world, and, contrary to empiricist orthodoxy, that they can meet sufficiently strict demands for testability. Econometrics is one discipline where probabilities are used to measure causal capacities, and the technology of modern physics provides several examples of testing capacities (such as lasers). Cartwright concludes by applying the lessons of the book about capacities and probabilities to the (...)
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  8. How the Laws of Physics Lie.Nancy Cartwright - 1983 - Oxford University Press.
    In this sequence of philosophical essays about natural science, the author argues that fundamental explanatory laws, the deepest and most admired successes of modern physics, do not in fact describe regularities that exist in nature. Cartwright draws from many real-life examples to propound a novel distinction: that theoretical entities, and the complex and localized laws that describe them, can be interpreted realistically, but the simple unifying laws of basic theory cannot.
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  9. Is Bhaskar's Realism Realistic.Alan Chalmers - 1988 - Radical Philosophy 49:18-23.
  10. What is This Thing Called Science?Alan F. Chalmers - 1976 - Univ. Of Queensland Press.
  11.  35
    Recent Themes in the Philosophy of Science: Scientific Realism and Commonsense.Steve Clarke & Timothy D. Lyons (eds.) - 2002 - Dordrecht: Springer.
  12. Critical Realism: An Introduction to Roy Bhaskar's Philosophy.Andrew Collier - 1994 - Verso.
    This book expounds the transcendental realist theory of science and critical naturalist social philosophy that have been developed by Bhaskar and are used by many contemporary social scientists. It defends Bhaskar's view that the possibility and necessity of experiment show that reality is structured and stratified, his use of this idea to develop a non-reductive explanatory account of human sciences, and his notion that to explain social structures can sometimes be to criticize them. After a discussion of the uses of (...)
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  13. Science Without Laws.Ronald N. Giere - 1999 - University of Chicago Press.
    Debate over the nature of science has recently moved from the halls of academia into the public sphere, where it has taken shape as the "science wars." At issue is the question of whether scientific knowledge is objective and universal or socially mediated, whether scientific truths are independent of human values and beliefs. Ronald Giere is a philosopher of science who has been at the forefront of this debate from its inception, and Science without Laws offers a much-needed mediating perspective (...)
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    Experimental Localism and External Validity.Francesco Guala - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1195-1205.
    Experimental “localism” stresses the importance of context‐specific knowledge, and the limitations of universal theories in science. I illustrate Latour's radical approach to localism and show that it has some unpalatable consequences, in particular the suggestion that problems of external validity (or how to generalize experimental results to nonlaboratory circumstances) cannot be solved. In the last part of the paper I try to sketch a solution to the problem of external validity by extending Mayo's error‐probabilistic approach.
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  15. The Reach of the Law.Peter Lipton - 2002 - Philosophical Books 43:254-260.
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  16. Capacities, Natures and Pluralism: A New Metaphysics For.Peter Menzies - manuscript
    thought-provoking exploration of the role of laws and models in the sciences, with In her alternative metaphysical framework, Cartwright relegates regularities in special emphasis on physics and economics. Cartwright proposes a novel metaphysics..
     
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  17. The Structure of Idealization.Leszek Nowak - 1982 - Studies in Soviet Thought 24 (1):72-75.
     
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  18. Limited Realism: Cartwright on Natures and Laws.L. A. Paul - 2002 - Philosophical Books 43:244-253.
    A leaf falls to the ground, wafting lazily on the afternoon breeze. Clouds move across the sky, and birds sing. Are these events governed by universal laws of nature, laws that apply everywhere without exception, subsuming events such as the falling of the leaf, the movement of the clouds and the singing of the birds? Are such laws part of a small set of fundamental laws, or descended from such a set, which govern everything there is in the world?
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  19. Scientific Realism: How Science Tracks Truth.Stathis Psillos - 1999 - Routledge.
    Scientific Realism is the optimistic view that modern science is on the right track: that the world really is the way our best scientific theories describe it to be. In his book, Stathis Psillos gives us a detailed and comprehensive study, which restores the intuitive plausibility of scientific realism. We see that throughout the twentieth century, scientific realism has been challenged by philosophical positions from all angles: from reductive empiricism, to instrumentalism and modern skeptical empiricism. Scientific Realism explains that the (...)
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  20. Philosophical Papers, Volume 1: Mathematics, Matter, and Method.Hilary Putnam (ed.) - 1979 - Cambridge University Press.
    Professor Hilary Putnam has been one of the most influential and sharply original of recent American philosophers in a whole range of fields. His most important published work is collected here, together with several new and substantial studies, in two volumes. The first deals with the philosophy of mathematics and of science and the nature of philosophical and scientific enquiry; the second deals with the philosophy of language and mind. Volume one is now issued in a new edition, including an (...)
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    Metaphysical Presuppositions of Scientific Practice.Alexander Rueger & W. David Sharp - 1998 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (1):1-20.
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  22. Dappled Theories in a Uniform World.Lawrence Sklar - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (2):424-441.
    It has been argued, most trenchantly by Nancy Cartwright, that the diversity of the concepts and regularities we actually use to describe nature and predict and explain its behavior leaves us with no reason to believe that our foundational physical theories actually "apply" outside of delicately contrived systems within the laboratory. This paper argues that, diversity of method notwithstanding, there is indeed good reason to think that the foundational laws of physics are universal in their scope.
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    Bhaskar on Open and Closed Systems.David Spurrett - 2000 - South African Journal of Philosophy 19 (3):188-209.
    Bhaskar's articulation of his ‘transcendental realism' includes an argument for a form of causal emergence which would mean the rejection of physicalism, by means of rejecting the causal closure of the physical. His argument is based on an analysis of the conditions for closure, where closed systems manifest regular or Humean relations between events. Bhaskar argues that the project of seeking closure entails commitment to a strong (and implausible) reductionism, which in turn entails the impossibility of science itself, and concludes (...)
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  24. Pyrrhic Victories for Scientific Realism.P. Kyle Stanford - 2002 - Journal of Philosophy 100 (11):553 - 572.
  25. Transcendental Arguments and Scepticism: Answering the Question of Justification.Robert Stern - 2000 - Oxford University Press.
    Robert Stern investigates how scepticism can be countered by using transcendental arguments concerning the necessary conditions for the possibility of experience, language, or thought. He shows that the most damaging sceptical questions concern neither the certainty of our beliefs nor the reliability of our belief-forming methods, but rather how we can justify our beliefs.
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