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  1. Empathy’s Purity, Sympathy’s Complexities; De Waal, Darwin and Adam Smith.Cor van der Weele - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):583-593.
    Frans de Waal’s view that empathy is at the basis of morality directly seems to build on Darwin, who considered sympathy as the crucial instinct. Yet when we look closer, their understanding of the central social instinct differs considerably. De Waal sees our deeply ingrained tendency to sympathize (or rather: empathize) with others as the good side of our morally dualistic nature. For Darwin, sympathizing was not the whole story of the workings of sympathy ; the (selfish) need to receive (...)
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  • The Empathic Brain: How, When and Why?Frederique de Vignemont & Tania Singer - 2006 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (10):435-441.
    Recent imaging results suggest that individuals automatically share the emotions of others when exposed to their emotions. We question the assumption of the automaticity and propose a contextual approach, suggesting several modulatory factors that might influence empathic brain responses. Contextual appraisal could occur early in emotional cue evaluation, which then might or might not lead to an empathic brain response, or not until after an empathic brain response is automatically elicited. We propose two major roles for empathy; its epistemological role (...)
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  • Simulation, Projection and Empathy.Dan Zahavi - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):514-522.
    Simulationists have recently started to employ the term "empathy" when characterizing our most basic understanding of other minds. I agree that empathy is crucial, but I think it is being misconstrued by the simulationists. Using some ideas to be found in Scheler's classical discussion of empathy, I will argue for a different understanding of the notion. More specifically, I will argue that there are basic levels of interpersonal understanding - in particular the understanding of emotional expressions - that are not (...)
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  • Distinctions Among Various Modes of Empathy-Related Reactions: A Matter of Importance in Humans.Nancy Eisenberg - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):33-34.
    Preston & de Waal minimized differences among constructs such as empathy, sympathy, and personal distress. However, such distinctions have been shown to relate differently to altruistic behavior. Moreover, although the authors discussed the role of regulation in empathy, they did not consider the possibility that sometimes empathy is not well-regulated and likely leads to personal distress rather than sympathy.
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  • Responding to the Emotions of Others: Dissociating Forms of Empathy Through the Study of Typical and Psychiatric Populations.R. J. R. Blair - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (4):698-718.
    Empathy is a lay term that is becoming increasingly viewed as a unitary function within the field of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, a selective review of the empathy literature is provided. It is argued from this literature that empathy is not a unitary system but rather a loose collection of partially dissociable neurocognitive systems. In particular, three main divisions can be made: cognitive empathy , motor empathy, and emotional empathy. The two main psychiatric disorders associated with empathic dysfunction are (...)
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  • Shared Representations Between Self and Other: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience View.Jean Decety & Jessica A. Sommerville - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (12):527-533.
  • Ethics and Cognitive Science.Alvin I. Goldman - 1993 - Ethics 103 (2):337-360.
  • A Meta‐Analytic Review of Help Giving and Aggression From an Attributional Perspective: Contributions to a General Theory of Motivation.Udo Rudolph, Scott Roesch, Tobias Greitemeyer & Bernard Weiner - 2004 - Cognition and Emotion 18 (6):815-848.