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  1. Forms of Explanation: Rethinking the Questions in Social Theory.Richard Hudelson - 1981 - Philosophical Review 93 (1):116-118.
  • Is a General Theory of Life Possible? Seeking the Nature of Life in the Context of a Single Example.Carol E. Cleland - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):368-379.
    Is one of the roles of theory in biology answering the question “What is life?” This is true of theory in many other fields of science. So why should not it be the case for biology? Yet efforts to identify unifying concepts and principles of life have been disappointing, leading some (pluralists) to conclude that life is not a natural kind. In this essay I argue that such judgments are premature. Life as we know it on Earth today represents a (...)
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  • The Social Life of Scientific Theories: A Case Study From Behavioral Sciences. [REVIEW]Helen E. Longino - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):390-400.
    This article reports on the third phase of a comparative epistemological, ontological, and social analysis of a variety of approaches to investigating human behavior. In focusing on the fate of scientific ideas once they leave the context in which they were developed, I hope not only to show that their communication for a broader audience imposes a shape on their interrelations different than they seem to have in the research context, but also to suggest that a study comparing different approaches (...)
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  • The Fate of Darwinism: Evolution After the Modern Synthesis.David J. Depew & Bruce H. Weber - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (1):89-102.
    We trace the history of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, and of genetic Darwinism generally, with a view to showing why, even in its current versions, it can no longer serve as a general framework for evolutionary theory. The main reason is empirical. Genetical Darwinism cannot accommodate the role of development in many evolutionary processes. We go on to discuss two conceptual issues: whether natural selection can be the “creative factor” in a new, more general framework for evolutionary theorizing; and whether (...)
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  • The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1994 - Princeton University Press.
    Traditionally a scientific theory is viewed as based on universal laws of nature that serve as axioms for logical deduction. In analyzing the logical structure of evolutionary biology, Elisabeth Lloyd argues that the semantic account is more appropriate and powerful. This book will be of interest to biologists and philosophers alike.
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  • Aristotle's Rhetoric: An Art of Character.Eugene Garver - 1994 - University of Chicago Press.
    In this major contribution to philosophy and rhetoric, Eugene Garver shows how Aristotle integrates logic and virtue in his great treatise, the _Rhetoric._ He raises and answers a central question: can there be a civic art of rhetoric, an art that forms the character of citizens? By demonstrating the importance of the _Rhetoric_ for understanding current philosophical problems of practical reason, virtue, and character, Garver has written the first work to treat the _Rhetoric_ as philosophy and to connect its themes (...)
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  • On the Origin of Species.Charles Darwin - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    The present edition provides a detailed and accessible discussion ofhis theories and adds an account of the immediate responses to the book on publication.
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  • Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and Philosophy.M. BLACK - 1962 - Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation.Chaïm Perelman - 1969 - Notre Dame, [Ind.]University of Notre Dame Press.
    The New Rhetoric is founded on the idea that since "argumentation aims at securing the adherence of those to whom it is addressed, it is, in its entirety, relative to the audience to be influenced," says Chaïm Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca, and they rely, in particular, for their theory of argumentation on the twin concepts of universal and particular audiences: while every argument is directed to a specific individual or group, the orator decides what information and what approaches will achieve (...)
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  • The Fate of Knowledge.Helen E. Longino - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    "--Richard Grandy, Rice University "This is the first compelling diagnosis of what has gone awry in the raging 'science wars.
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  • Models and Analogies in Science.Mary Hesse - 1963 - University of Notre Dame Press.
  • The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science.John Dupré - 1993 - Harvard University Press.
    With this manifesto, John Dupré systematically attacks the ideal of scientific unity by showing how its underlying assumptions are at odds with the central conclusions of science itself.
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  • Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.Edward O. Wilson - 1998 - Random House.
    An enormous intellectual adventure. In this groundbreaking new book, the American biologist Edward O. Wilson, considered to be one of the world's greatest living scientists, argues for the fundamental unity of all knowledge and the need to search for consilience --the proof that everything in our world is organized in terms of a small number of fundamental natural laws that comprise the principles underlying every branch of learning. Professor Wilson, the pioneer of sociobiology and biodiversity, now once again breaks out (...)
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  • The Uses of Argument.Stephen E. Toulmin - 1958 - Cambridge University Press.
    A central theme throughout the impressive series of philosophical books and articles Stephen Toulmin has published since 1948 is the way in which assertions and opinions concerning all sorts of topics, brought up in everyday life or in academic research, can be rationally justified. Is there one universal system of norms, by which all sorts of arguments in all sorts of fields must be judged, or must each sort of argument be judged according to its own norms? In The Uses (...)
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  • Toward a New Philosophy of Biology: Observations of an Evolutionist.Ernst Mayr - 1988 - Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    Provides a philosophical analysis of such biological concepts as natural selection, adaptation, speciation, and evolution.
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  • One Long Argument: Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary Thought.Ernst Mayr - 1991 - Harvard University Press.
    This is an important book for students, biologists, and general readers interested in the history of ideas--especially ideas that have radically altered our ...
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  • The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science.Nancy Cartwright - 1999 - Cambridge University Press.
    It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others behave in (...)
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  • Defining Science a Rhetoric of Demarcation.Charles Alan Taylor - 1996 - University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Genetics of the Evolutionary Process.Theodosius Dobzhansky - 1970 - Columbia University Press.
  • Thinking About Mechanisms.Peter Machamer, Lindley Darden & Carl F. Craver - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (1):1-25.
    The concept of mechanism is analyzed in terms of entities and activities, organized such that they are productive of regular changes. Examples show how mechanisms work in neurobiology and molecular biology. Thinking in terms of mechanisms provides a new framework for addressing many traditional philosophical issues: causality, laws, explanation, reduction, and scientific change.
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  • What Is a Mechanism? A Counterfactual Account.James Woodward - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S366-S377.
    This paper presents a counterfactual account of what a mechanism is. Mechanisms consist of parts, the behavior of which conforms to generalizations that are invariant under interventions, and which are modular in the sense that it is possible in principle to change the behavior of one part independently of the others. Each of these features can be captured by the truth of certain counterfactuals.
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  • Models in Science.Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann - 2006 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford.
    Models are of central importance in many scientific contexts. The centrality of models such as the billiard ball model of a gas, the Bohr model of the atom, the MIT bag model of the nucleon, the Gaussian-chain model of a polymer, the Lorenz model of the atmosphere, the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction, the double helix model of DNA, agent-based and evolutionary models in the social sciences, or general equilibrium models of markets in their respective domains are cases in point. (...)
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  • Paul Ricoeur: "The Rule of Metaphor". [REVIEW]Harrison Hall - 1980 - Philosophical Review 89 (1):117-121.
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  • The Uses of Argument.Stephen E. Toulmin - 1958 - Philosophy 34 (130):244-245.
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  • Scientific Pluralism.Stephen H. Kellert, Helen E. Longino & C. Kenneth Waters (eds.) - 2006 - Univ of Minnesota Press.
    Scientific pluralism is an issue at the forefront of philosophy of science. This landmark work addresses the question, Can pluralism be advanced as a general, philosophical interpretation of science?
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  • Theoretical Pluralism and the Scientific Study of Behavior.Helen Longino - 2006 - In Stephen Kellert, Helen Longino & C. Kenneth Waters (eds.), Scientific Pluralism. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 102-31.
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  • Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and Philosophy.Max Black - 1962 - Cornell.
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  • The Case of the Female Orgasm: Bias in the Science of Evolution.Letitia Meynell - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (3):218-222.
  • Models and Analogies in Science.Mary Hesse - 1965 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 16 (62):161-163.
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  • The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science.Nancy Cartwright - 2003 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1):244-247.
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  • What is a Mechanism? A Counterfactual Account.Jim Woodward - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S366-S377.
    This paper presents a counterfactual account of what a mechanism is. Mechanisms consist of parts, the behavior of which conforms to generalizations that are invariant under interventions, and which are modular in the sense that it is possible in principle to change the behavior of one part independently of the others. Each of these features can be captured by the truth of certain counterfactuals.
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  • The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science.Nancy Cartwright - 1999 - Philosophy 75 (294):613-616.
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  • Mankind Evolving: The Evolution of the Human Species.T. DOBZHANSKY - 1962
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  • Selfish Genes and Social Darwinism.Mary Midgley - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (225):365.
    Exchanging views in Philosophy with a two-year time-lag is getting rather like conversation with the Andromeda Nebula. I am distressed that my reply to Messrs Mackie and Dawkins, explaining what made me write so crossly about The Selfish Gene , has been so long delayed. Mr Mackie's sudden death in December 1981 adds a further dimension to this distress.
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  • The New Rhetoric.Charles Perelman & L. Olbrechts-Tyteca - 1957 - Philosophy Today 1 (1):4-10.
  • The Structure and Confirmation of Evolutionary Theory.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1992 - Noûs 26 (1):132-133.
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  • Adaptation as Process: The Future of Darwinism and the Legacy of Theodosius Dobzhansky.David J. Depew - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (1):89-98.
    Conceptions of adaptation have varied in the history of genetic Darwinism depending on whether what is taken to be focal is the process of adaptation, adapted states of populations, or discrete adaptations in individual organisms. I argue that Theodosius Dobzhansky’s view of adaptation as a dynamical process contrasts with so-called “adaptationist” views of natural selection figured as “design-without-a-designer” of relatively discrete, enumerable adaptations. Correlated with these respectively process and product oriented approaches to adaptive natural selection are divergent pictures of organisms (...)
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  • Adaptation as Process: The Future of Darwinism and the Legacy of Theodosius Dobzhansky.David J. Depew - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (1):89-98.
  • Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution.Theodosius Dobzhansky - 1983 - In J. Peter Zetterberg (ed.), Evolution Versus Creationism: The Public Education Controversy. Oryx Press. pp. 18--28.
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  • Weighing the Risks: Stalemate in the Classical/Balance Controversy.John Beatty - 1987 - Journal of the History of Biology 20 (3):289-319.
    The classical/balance controversy continued along these lines throughout the first half of the sixties. Then, at about the same time that the classical position lost its leading advocate, the balance position received striking new support from Harry Harris, and independently from Dobzhansky's former student Lewontin, and Lewontin's research partner, Jack Hubby.80 These developments served more to reorient the controversy than to end it — and the resulting “neoclassical”/balance controversy is different enough to be grist for another mill.Social policy considerations no (...)
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  • Toward a New Philosophy of Biology.Ernst Mayr - 1990 - Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):321-328.
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  • Discovering Complexity.William Bechtel, Robert C. Richardson & Scott A. Kleiner - 1996 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 18 (3):363-382.
  • Aristotle's "Rhetoric": An Art of Character.Eugene Garver - 1996 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 29 (4):436-440.
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  • Evolution. — The Modern Synthesis.J. Huxley & T. H. Huxley - 1950 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 6 (2):207-207.
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  • The Century of the Gene.Evelyn Fox Keller - 2001 - Journal of the History of Biology 34 (3):613-615.
  • Evolution: The Modern Synthesis.Julian Huxley - 1944 - Philosophy 19 (73):166-170.
     
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  • The Rhetoric of the Origin of Species.David J. Depew - 2009 - In Michael Ruse & Robert J. Richards (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the "Origin of Species". Cambridge University Press.
     
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