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  1. A ‘Business Opportunity’ Model of Corporate Social Responsibility for Small‐ and Medium‐Sized Enterprises.Heledd Jenkins - 2009 - Business Ethics 18 (1):21-36.
    In their book ‘Corporate Social Opportunity’, Grayson and Hodges maintain that ‘the driver for business success is entrepreneurialism, a competitive instinct and a willingness to look for innovation from non‐traditional areas such as those increasingly found within the corporate social responsibility agenda’. Such opportunities are described as ‘commercially viable activities which also advance environmental and social sustainability’. There are three dimensions to corporate social opportunity – innovation in products and services, serving unserved markets and building new business models. While small‐ (...)
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  • Does Size Matter? The State of the Art in Small Business Ethics.Laura J. Spence - 1999 - Business Ethics 8 (3):163-174.
    In this paper the exclusive focus on large firms in the field of business ethics is challenged. Some of the idiosyncrasies of small firms are explained, and links are made between these and potential ethical issues. A review of the existing literature on ethics in small firms demonstrates the lack of appropriate research, so that to date we can draw no firm conclusions in relation to ethics in the small firm. Recommendations are made as to the way forward for small (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Theory and Practice in a Developing Country Context. [REVIEW]Dima Jamali & Ramez Mirshak - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):243 - 262.
    After providing an overview of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) research in different contexts, and noting the varied methodologies adopted, two robust CSR conceptualizations – one by Carroll (1979, ‘A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance’, The Academy of Management Review 4(4), 497–505) and the other by Wood (1991, ‘Corporate Social Performance Revisited’, The Academy of Management Review 16(4), 691–717) – have been adopted for this research and their integration explored. Using this newly synthesized framework, the research critically examines the CSR (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility in France: A Mix of National Traditions and International Influences.Ariane Berthoin Antal & André Sobczak - 2007 - Business and Society 46 (1):9-32.
    This article explores the dynamics of the discourse and practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in France to illustrate the interplay between endogenous and exogenous factors in the development of CSR in a country. It shows how the cultural, socioeconomic, and legal traditions influence the way ideas are raised, the kinds of questions considered relevant, and the sorts of solutions conceived as desirable and possible. Furthermore, the article traces how expectations and practices evolve as a result of various social and (...)
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  • A ‘Business Opportunity’ Model of Corporate Social Responsibility for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises.Heledd Jenkins - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (1):21-36.
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  • Corporate Identity of a Socially Responsible University – a Case From the Turkish Higher Education Sector.M. G. Serap Atakan & Tutku Eker - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (1):55 - 68.
    Facing increased competition, universities are driven to project a positive image to their internal and external stakeholders. Therefore some of these institutions have begun to develop and implement corporate identity programs as part of their corporate strategies. This study describes a Turkish higher education institution’s social responsibility initiatives. Along with this example, the study also analyzes a specific case using concepts from the Corporate Identity and Corporate Social Responsibility literature. The motives leading the university to manage its corporate identity, the (...)
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  • Small Business Champions for Corporate Social Responsibility.Heledd Jenkins - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):241-256.
    While Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has traditionally been the domain of the corporate sector, recognition of the growing significance of the Small and Medium Sized Enterprise (SME) sector has led to an emphasis on their social and environmental impact, illustrated by an increasing number of initiatives aimed at engaging SMEs in the CSR agenda. CSR has been well researched in large companies, but SMEs have received less attention in this area. This paper presents the findings from a U.K. wide study (...)
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  • Communication of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Study of the Views of Management Teams in Large Companies. [REVIEW]Susanne Arvidsson - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):339 - 354.
    In light of the many corporate scandals, social and ethical commitment of society has increased considerably, which puts pressure on companies to communicate information related to corporate social responsibility (CSR). The reasons underlying the decision by management teams to engage in ethical communication are scarcely focussed on. Thus, grounded on legitimacy and stakeholder theory, this study analyses the views management teams in large listed companies have on communication of CSR. The focus is on aspects on interest, motives/reasons, users and problems (...)
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  • Does Size Matter? The State of the Art in Small Business Ethics.Laura J. Spence - 1999 - Business Ethics 8 (3):163–174.
    In this paper the exclusive focus on large firms in the field of business ethics is challenged. Some of the idiosyncrasies of small firms are explained, and links are made between these and potential ethical issues. A review of the existing literature on ethics in small firms demonstrates the lack of appropriate research, so that to date we can draw no firm conclusions in relation to ethics in the small firm. Recommendations are made as to the way forward for small (...)
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  • Managers' Personal Values as Drivers of Corporate Social Responsibility.Christine A. Hemingway & Patrick W. Maclagan - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 50 (1):33-44.
    In this theoretical paper, motives for CSR are considered. An underlying assumption is that the commercial imperative is not the sole driver of CSR decision-making in private sector companies, but that the formal adoption and implementation of CSR by corporations could be associated with the changing personal values of individual managers. These values may find expression through the opportunity to exercise discretion, which may arise in various ways. It is suggested that in so far as CSR initiatives represent individuals' values, (...)
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  • Is Corporate Responsibility Converging? A Comparison of Corporate Responsibility Reporting in the USA, UK, Australia, and Germany.Stephen Chen & Petra Bouvain - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):299 - 317.
    Corporate social reporting, while not mandatory in most countries, has been adopted by many large companies around the world and there are now a variety of competing global standards for non-financial reporting, such as the Global Reporting Initiative and the UN Global Compact. However, while some companies (e. g., Henkel, BHP, Johnson and Johnson) have a long standing tradition in reporting non-financial information, other companies provide only limited information, or in some cases, no information at all. Previous studies have suggested (...)
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  • Greening the Corporation Through Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.Olivier Boiral - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (2):221-236.
    Organizational citizenship behaviors have been the topic of much research attempting to understand the motivations, manifestations, and impacts of these behaviors on organizational development. However, studies have been based essentially on an anthropocentric and intra-organizational perspective that tends to ignore broader environmental issues. Due to the complexity of environmental issues and their human, informal, and preventive aspects, consideration of these issues requires voluntary and decentralized initiatives that draw on organizational citizenship behaviors. The role of these behaviors has been neglected, or (...)
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  • Philanthropy, Integration or Innovation? Exploring the Financial and Societal Outcomes of Different Types of Corporate Responsibility.Minna Halme & Juha Laurila - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (3):325-339.
    This article argues that previous research on the outcomes of corporate responsibility should be refined in two ways. First, although there is abundant research that addresses the link between corporate responsibility (CR) and financial performance, hardly any studies scrutinize whether the type of corporate responsibility makes a difference to this link. Second, while the majority of CR research conducted within business studies concentrates on the financial outcomes for the firm, the societal outcomes of CR are left largely unexplored. To tackle (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility in the Supply Chain: An Application in the Food Industry.Michael J. Maloni & Michael E. Brown - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (1):35-52.
    The food industry faces many significant risks from public criticism of corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues in the supply chain. This paper draws upon previous research and emerging industry trends to develop a comprehensive framework of supply chain CSR in the industry. The framework details unique CSR applications in the food supply chain including animal welfare, biotechnology, environment, fair trade, health and safety, and labor and human rights. General supply chain CSR issues such as community and procurement are also considered. (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility in Western Europe: An Institutional Mirror or Substitute? [REVIEW]Gregory Jackson & Androniki Apostolakou - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (3):371 - 394.
    In spite of extensive research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and its link with economic and social performance, few studies have investigated the institutional determinants of CSR. This article draws upon neo-institutional theory and comparative institutional analysis to compare the influence of different institutional environments on CSR policies of European firms. On the basis of a dataset of European firms, we find that firms from the more liberal market economies of the Anglo-Saxon countries score higher on most dimensions of CSR (...)
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  • CSR and Small Business in a European Policy Context: The Five “C”s of CSR and Small Business Research Agenda 2007.Laura J. Spence - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (4):533-552.
  • Communicating About Ethics with Small Firms: Experiences From the U.K. And Spain. [REVIEW]Laura J. Spence & José Félix Lozano - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (1-2):43 - 53.
    This article introduces the important issue of communicating with small firms about ethical issues. Evidence from two research projects from the U.K. and Spain are used to indicate some of the important issues and how small firms may differ from large firms in this area. The importance of informal mechanisms such as the influence of friends, family and employees are highlighted, and the likely ineffectiveness of formal tools such as Codes and Social and Ethical Standards suggested. Further resarch in the (...)
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  • Corporations, Stakeholders and Sustainable Development I: A Theoretical Exploration of Business–Society Relations.Reinhard Steurer, Markus E. Langer, Astrid Konrad & André Martinuzzi - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 61 (3):263-281.
    Sustainable development (SD) – that is, “Development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs and aspirations” – can be pursued in many different ways. Stakeholder relations management (SRM) is one such way, through which corporations are confronted with economic, social, and environmental stakeholder claims. This paper lays the groundwork for an empirical analysis of the question of how far SD can be achieved through SRM. It describes the so-called SD–SRM (...)
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  • CSR in SMEs: Do SMEs Matter for the CSR Agenda?Mette Morsing & Francesco Perrini - 2009 - Business Ethics 18 (1):1-6.
    In this paper we argue that the collective grandness of small business is often underestimated in CSR research and policy-making. We emphasize the importance of understanding the contexts and the ways in which small- and medium-sized companies engage in CSR and how they differ from multinational companies. We suggest that it might be that researchers and practitioners are asking the wrong questions in their ambitions to prove 'the business case for CSR'. Perhaps we should rather focus on the 'how' and (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility : Theory and Practice in a Developing Country Context.Dima Jamali & Ramez Mirshak - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):243-262.
    After providing an overview of Corporate Social Responsibility research in different contexts, and noting the varied methodologies adopted, two robust CSR conceptualizations - one by Carroll, 497-505) and the other by Wood, 691-717) - have been adopted for this research and their integration explored. Using this newly synthesized framework, the research critically examines the CSR approach and philosophy of eight companies that are considered active in CSR in the Lebanese context. The findings suggest the lack of a systematic, focused, and (...)
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  • Monitoring the Ethical Use of Sales Technology: An Exploratory Field Investigation. [REVIEW]Victoria Bush, Alan J. Bush & Linda Orr - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2):239 - 257.
    The use of technology in marketing has become an increasingly important competitive tool in developing and maintaining efficient and productive customer relationships. However, the ethics of using this technology has received little attention. This study investigates how and if marketing organizations are adapting their ethics policies to incorporate use of sales technology (ST). Based on in-depth interviews with executives from a variety of highly regulated to nonregulated business-to-business and business-to-consumer industries, our results show that, although most organizations indeed have codes (...)
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  • SMEs and CSR: An Approach to CSR in Their Own Words.David Murillo & Josep M. Lozano - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):227-240.
    The academic literature reveals the need to undertake more in-depth field studies in order to discover the organisational culture, the difficulties and the perceptions surrounding CSR in SMEs. This study presents the results of analysis of four case studies on Catalan companies that stand out for their social and environmental practices. The conclusions of this paper are the result of dialogue with the main actors – four medium-sized companies – focusing on their actions, understandings and resistance with regard to CSR. (...)
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  • CSR Strategies of SMEs and Large Firms. Evidence From Italy.Francesco Perrini, Angeloantonio Russo & Antonio Tencati - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (3):285-300.
    While corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming a mainstream issue for many organizations, most of the research to date addresses CSR in large businesses rather than in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), because it is too often considered a prerogative of large businesses only. The role of SMEs in an increasingly dynamic context is now being questioned, including what factors might affect their socially responsible behaviour. The goal of this paper is to make a comparison of SME and large firm (...)
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  • Corporate Identity of a Socially Responsible University–a Case From the Turkish Higher Education Sector.Mg Serap Atakan & Tutku Eker - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (1):55-68.
    Facing increased competition, universities are driven to project a positive image to their internal and external stakeholders. Therefore some of these institutions have begun to develop and implement corporate identity programs as part of their corporate strategies. This study describes a Turkish higher education institution's social responsibility initiatives. Along with this example, the study also analyzes a specific case using concepts from the Corporate Identity and Corporate Social Responsibility literature. The motives leading the university to manage its corporate identity, the (...)
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  • CSR in SMEs: Do SMEs Matter for the CSR Agenda?Mette Morsing & Francesco Perrini - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (1):1-6.
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  • Configuration of External Influences: The Combined Effects of Institutions and Stakeholders on Corporate Social Responsibility Strategies. [REVIEW]Min-Dong Paul Lee - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (2):281-298.
    This article introduces a theoretical framework that combines institutional and stakeholder theories to explain how firms choose their corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy. Organizational researchers have identified several distinct CSR strategies (e.g., obstructionist, defensive, accommodative, and proactive), but did not explain the sources of divergence. This article argues that the divergence comes from the variability in the configuration of external influences that consists of institutional and stakeholder pressures. While institutions affect firms’ social behavior by shaping the macro-level incentive structure and (...)
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