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  1. The Limits of Morality.Shelly Kagan - 1989 - Oxford University Press.
    Most people believe that there are limits to the sacrifices that morality can demand. Although it would often be meritorious, we are not, in fact, morally required to do all that we can to promote overall good. What's more, most people also believe that certain types of acts are simply forbidden, morally off limits, even when necessary for promoting the overall good. In this provocative analysis Kagan maintains that despite the intuitive appeal of these views, they cannot be adequately defended. (...)
  • Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.Immanuel Kant - 1785/2002 - Oxford University Press.
    In this classic text, Kant sets out to articulate and defend the Categorical Imperative - the fundamental principle that underlies moral reasoning - and to lay the foundation for a comprehensive account of justice and human virtues. This new edition and translation of Kant's work is designed especially for students. An extensive and comprehensive introduction explains the central concepts of Groundwork and looks at Kant's main lines of argument. Detailed notes aim to clarify Kant's thoughts and to correct some common (...)
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  • Utilitarianism.John Stuart Mill - 1863 - Cleveland: Cambridge University Press.
    Reissued here in its corrected second edition of 1864, this essay by John Stuart Mill argues for a utilitarian theory of morality. Originally printed as a series of three articles in Fraser's Magazine in 1861, the work sought to refine the 'greatest happiness' principle that had been championed by Jeremy Bentham, defending it from common criticisms, and offering a justification of its validity. Following Bentham, Mill holds that actions can be judged as right or wrong depending on whether they promote (...)
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  • Commonsense Morality and Not Being Required to Maximize the Overall Good.Douglas W. Portmore - 2000 - Philosophical Studies 100 (2):193-213.
    On commonsense morality, there are two types of situations where an agent is not required to maximize the impersonal good. First, there are those situations where the agent is prohibited from doing so--constraints. Second, there are those situations where the agent is permitted to do so but also has the option of doing something else--options. I argue that there are three possible explanations for the absence of a moral requirement to maximize the impersonal good and that the commonsense moralist must (...)
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  • An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.Jeremy Bentham - 1780 - Dover Publications.
    Bentham's best-known book stands as a classic of both philosophy and jurisprudence. The 1789 work articulates an important statement of the foundations of utilitarian philosophy — it also represents a pioneering study of crime and punishment. Bentham's reasoning remains central to contemporary debates in moral and political philosophy, economics, and legal theory.
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  • Normative Ethics.Shelly Kagan - 1998
     
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  • Political Theory and International Relations.Charles Beitz - 1979 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Humanitarian Intervention: An Overview of the Ethical Issues.Michael J. Smith - 1998 - Ethics and International Affairs 12:63–79.
    This essay analyzes the arguments justifying or opposing the notion of humanitarian intervention from realist and liberal perspectives and considers the difficulties of undertaking such interventions effectively and consistently.
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  • “Immaculate War”: Constraints on Humanitarian Intervention.Martin L. Cook - 2000 - Ethics and International Affairs 14:55–65.
    Although military personnel are required to follow all legal orders, morally the traditional contract between soldier and state rests on shared assumptions about the purposes for which national militaries will and will not be used.
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  • Basic Moral Values: A Shared Core.Frances V. Harbour - 1995 - Ethics and International Affairs 9:155–170.
    Without some form of objectivity, Harbour argues, there is no firm grounding other than taste for criticizing whatever constitutes another culture's values, or even for reforming one's own—and there is no firm grounding for moral objections to someone such as Hitler or Idi Amin.
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  • Humanitarian Intervention: Three Ethical Positions.Pierre Laberge - 1995 - Ethics and International Affairs 9:15–35.
    LaBerge examines the ethical positions of Rawls, Kant, John Walzer adapted from J. S. Mill, and Canadian philosopher Howard Adelman are, and writes that they constitute "an ethics of human rights, ethics of the right to a historical community, and an ethics of peace.".
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  • The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention.Terry Nardin - 2002 - Ethics and International Affairs 16 (1):57-70.
    Nardin examines the moral principles underlying the idea of humanitarian intervention from the perspective of international law and from that of the natural law tradition.
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  • Ethics and Foreign Intervention.Steven P. Lee - 2004 - Ethics and International Affairs 18 (2):101-102.
    In their introduction, the editors ask: Is the frequent practice of humanitarian intervention in the 1990s the beginning of a long-term trend or a historical aberration? Perhaps these essays were written too close to 9/11 to have the perspective needed to answer this question.
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  • Consequences of Consequentialism.David Sosa - 1993 - Mind 102 (405):101-122.
  • Sidgwick and Common–Sense Morality.Brad Hooker - 2000 - Utilitas 12 (3):347.
    This paper begins by celebrating Sidgwick's Methods of Ethics. It then discusses Sidgwick's moral epistemology and in particular the coherentist element introduced by his argument from common-sense morality to utilitarianism. The paper moves on to a discussion of how common-sense morality seems more appealing if its principles are formulated as picking out pro tanto considerations rather than all-things-considered demands. Thefinal section of the paper considers the question of which version of utilitarianism follows from Sidgwick's arguments.
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  • The New Interventionism.Michael W. Doyle - 2001 - Metaphilosophy 32 (1-2):212-235.
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  • Humanitarian Intervention an Inquiry Into Law and Morality.Fernando R. Tesón - 1988
  • Consequentialism.Philip Pettit - 1993
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  • Humanitarian Intervention: Moral and Philosophical Issues.Aleksandar Jokic (ed.) - 2003 - Broadview Press.
    International law makes it explicit that states shall not intervene militarily or otherwise in the affairs of other states; it is a central principle of the charter of the United Nations. But international law also provides an exception; when a conflict within a state poses a threat to international peace, military intervention by the UN may be warranted.. The Charter and other UN documents also assert that human rights are to be protected — but in the past the responsibility for (...)
     
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  • Toward a Human Rights Based Account of the Just War.Daniel F. Montaldi - 1985 - Social Theory and Practice 11 (2):123-161.
  • An Institutional Approach to Humanitarian Intervention.Thomas W. Pogge - 1992 - Public Affairs Quarterly 6 (1):89-103.
  • The Ethics of Humanitarian Intervention: The Case of the Kurdish Refugees.Howard Adelman - 1992 - Public Affairs Quarterly 6 (1):61-87.
  • Is Armed Humanitarian Intervention to Stop Mass Killing Morally Obligatory.John W. Lango - 2001 - Public Affairs Quarterly 15 (3):173-191.
  • The Consequentialist Can Recognise Rights.Philip Pettit - 1988 - Philosophical Quarterly 38 (150):42-55.
    consequentialist, even being a utilitarian, allows one still to recognise rights.' I believe that these efforts are well motivated, for I think that any moral doctrine is suspect if one of its effects is to make agents unable to take one another's rights seriously.
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  • Rule-Consequentialism.Brad Hooker - 1990 - Mind 99 (393):67-77.
    The theory of morality we can call full rule - consequentialism selects rules solely in terms of the goodness of their consequences and then claims that these rules determine which kinds of acts are morally wrong. George Berkeley was arguably the first rule -consequentialist. He wrote, “In framing the general laws of nature, it is granted we must be entirely guided by the public good of mankind, but not in the ordinary moral actions of our lives. … The rule is (...)
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  • The Moral Standing of States: A Response to Four Critics.Michael Walzer - 1980 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 9 (3):209-229.
  • Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations.Barrie Paskins & Michael Walzer - 1981 - Philosophical Quarterly 31 (124):285.
  • Humanitarian Intervention: Moral and Philosophical Issues.Burleigh Wilkins - 2003 - Broadview Press.
    International law makes it explicit that states shall not intervene militarily or otherwise in the affairs of other states; it is a central principle of the charter of the United Nations. But international law also provides an exception; when a conflict within a state poses a threat to international peace, military intervention by the UN may be warranted. (Indeed, the UN Charter provides for an international police force, though nothing has ever come of this provision). The Charter and other UN (...)
     
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