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  1. Corporate Codes of Conduct: A Collective Conscience and Continuum. [REVIEW]Cecily A. Raiborn & Dinah Payne - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (11):879 - 889.
    This paper discusses the vast continuum between the letter of the law (legality) and the spirit of the law (ethics or morality). Further, the authors review the fiduciary duties owed by the firm to its various publics. These aspects must be considered in developing a corporate code of ethics. The underlying qualitative characteristics of a code include clarity, comprehensiveness and enforceability. While ethics is indigenous to a society, every code of ethics will necessarily reflect the corporate culture from which that (...)
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  • An Examination of the Relationship Between Ethical Work Climate and Moral Awareness.Craig V. VanSandt, Jon M. Shepard & Stephen M. Zappe - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (4):409-432.
    This paper draws from the fields of history, sociology, psychology, moral philosophy, and organizational theory to establish a theoretical connection between a social/organizational influence (ethical work climate) and an individual cognitive element of moral behavior (moral awareness). The research was designed to help to fill a gap in the existing literature by providing empirical evidence of the connection between organizational influences and individual moral awareness and subsequent ethical choices, which has heretofore largely been merely assumed. Results of the study provide (...)
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  • The Ethics Pyramid: Making Ethics Unavoidable in the Public Relations Process.Elspeth Tilley - 2005 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):305 – 320.
    To move from the realm of good intent to verifiable practice, ethics needs to be approached in the same way as any other desired outcome of the public relations process: that is, operationalized and evaluated at each stage of a public relations campaign. A pyramid model - the "ethics pyramid" - is useful for incorporating ethical reflection and evaluation processes into the standard structure of a typical public relations plan. Practitioners can use it to integrate and manage ethical intent, means, (...)
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  • The Influence of Collegiate and Corporate Codes of Conduct on Ethics-Related Behavior in the Workplace.Kenneth D. Butterfield - 1996 - Business Ethics Quarterly 6 (4):461-476.
    Codes of conduct are viewed here as a community’s attempt to communicate its expectations and standards of ethical behavior. Many organizations are implementing codes, but empirical support for the relationship between such codes and employee conduct is lacking. We investigated the long term effects of a collegiate honor code experience as well as the effects of corporate ethics codes on unethical behavior in the workplace by surveying alumni from an honor code and a non-honor code college who now work in (...)
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  • Does Ethics Statement of a Public Relations Firm Make a Difference? Yes It Does!!Eyun-Jung Ki, Hong-Lim Choi & Junghyuk Lee - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):267-276.
    Attempting to determine solutions for unethical practices in the field, this research was designed to assess the effectiveness of public relations firms’ ethics statements in decreasing the incidence of malpractice. This study revealed an encouraging finding that practitioners working in firms with ethical parameters were significantly more likely to engage in ethical practices. Moreover, educating public relations practitioners about the content of ethics statement could positively influence their ethical practices. At the same time, this study’s findings suggest further questions for (...)
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  • The Moderating Effect of Individuals' Perceptions of Ethical Work Climate on Ethical Judgments and Behavioral Intentions.Tim Barnett & Cheryl Vaicys - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (4):351 - 362.
    Dimensions of the ethical work climate, as conceptualized by Victor and Cullen (1988), are potentially important influences on individual ethical decision-making in the organizational context. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of individuals' perceptions of work climate on their ethical judgments and behavioral intentions regarding an ethical dilemma. A national sample of marketers was surveyed in a scenario-based research study. The results indicated that, although perceived climate dimensions did not have a direct effect on behavioral intentions, there (...)
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  • Should a Public Relations Code of Ethics Be Enforced?Yi-Hui Huang - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):259 - 270.
    Whether or not a public relations code of ethics should be enforced, among others, has become one of the most widely controversial topics, especially after the Hill and Knowlton case in 1992. I take the position that ethical codes should be enforced and address this issue from eight aspects: (a) Is a code of ethics an absolute prerequisite of professionalism? (b) Should problems of rhetoric per se in a code of ethics become a rationale against code enforcement? (c) Is a (...)
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  • The Relationship Between Ethics and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation. [REVIEW]Scott J. Vitell & D. L. Davis - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (6):489 - 494.
    The relationship between ethics and job satisfaction for MIS professionals is examined empirically. Five dimensions of job satisfaction are examined: (1) satisfaction with pay, (2) satisfaction with promotions, (3) satisfaction with co-workers, (4) satisfaction with supervisors and (5) satisfaction with the work itself. These dimensions of satisfaction are compared to top management's ethical stance, one's overall sense of social responsibility and an ethical optimism scale (i.e., the degree of optimism that one has concerning the positive relationship between ethics and success (...)
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  • A Model of Decision-Making Incorporating Ethical Values.David J. Fritzsche - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (11):841 - 852.
    A model is presented which describes the process decision-makers follow when faced with problems containing ethical dimensions. The model, based upon the empirical literature, is designed to provide guidance to researchers studying ethical behavior in business. The model portrays the decision-maker with a set of personal values which are mediated by elements of the organization's culture. The combination of personal values and organizational influences yields decisions which may be significantly different from those made based upon personal values alone. Inclusion of (...)
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  • Opening the Black Box: Corporate Codes of Ethics in Their Organizational Context. [REVIEW]Cathy Cassell, Phil Johnson & Ken Smith - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (10):1077-1093.
    A review of the literature on Corporate Codes of Ethics suggests that whilst there exists an informative body of literature concerning the prevalence of such codes, their design, implementation and promulgation, it is also evident that there is a relative lack of consideration of their impact upon members' everyday organizational behaviour. By drawing upon organizational sociology and psychology this paper constructs a contextualist and interpretive model which seeks to enable an analysis and evaluation of their effects upon individual, group and (...)
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  • Approaches to Organisational Culture and Ethics.Amanda Sinclair - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (1):63 - 73.
    This paper assesses the potential of organisational culture as a means for improving ethics in organisations. Organisational culture is recognised as one determinant of how people behave, more or less ethically, in organisations. It is also incresingly understood as an attribute that management can and should influence to improve organisational performance. When things go wrong in organisations, managers look to the culture as both the source of problems and the basis for solutions. Two models of organisational culture and ethical behaviour (...)
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  • Does Ethics Code Design Matter? Effects of Ethics Code Rationales and Sanctions on Recipients' Justice Perceptions and Content Recall.Gary R. Weaver - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (5):367 - 385.
    Prior research on ethics codes has suggested, but rarely tested, the effects of code design alternatives on the impact of codes. This study considers whether the presence of explanatory rationales and descriptions of sanctions in ethics codes affects recipients'' responses to a code. Theories of organizational justice and persuasive communication support an expectation that rationales and sanctions will be positively related to code recipients'' recall of code content and perceptions of organizational justice. Content recall is an obvious precondition of code (...)
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  • Firm Newness, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Ethical Climate.Donald Neubaum, Marie Mitchell & Marshall Schminke - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 52 (4):335-347.
    Faced with the liability of newness, a scarcity of resources, and concerns of survival, new firms frequently encounter difficult ethical decisions and might be pressured to make choices that run counter to the tenets of more developed ethical and moral reasoning. This study explores the impact of newness and entrepreneurial orientation on the ethical climate of firms. Data collected from 304 individuals across 37 firms indicated that firm newness was more strongly related to ethical climate than was an entrepreneurial orientation. (...)
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  • Toward an Understanding of Ethical Climate: Its Relationship to Ethical Behavior and Supervisory Influence. [REVIEW]James C. Wimbush & Jon M. Shepard - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (8):637 - 647.
    In recent years, theoretical and empirical developments in the area of organizational climate has provided the impetus for research concerning ethical climate. According to this latter research, ethical climate is a multi-dimensional construct which is manifested in organizations. Studies, however, have not focused on the relationship between ethical climate and ethical behavior. Furthermore, an enhanced understanding of the multi-dimensionality of ethical climate will likely advance what we know about organizational climate and culture in general. We propose further examination of ethical (...)
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  • Ethics Statements of Public Relations Firms: What Do They Say?Eyun-Jung Ki & Soo-Yeon Kim - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):223-236.
    This study was designed to examine the prevalence of a code of ethics and to analyze its content among public relations agencies in the United States. Of the 1,562 public relations agencies reviewed, 605 (38.7%) provided an ethical statement. Among the ethical statements provided by these public relations agencies, ‹respect to clients,’ ‹service,’ ‹strategic,’ and ‹results’ were the values most frequently emphasized. On the other hand, ‹balance,’ ‹fairness,’ ‹honor,’ ‹social responsibility,’ and ‹independence’ were the least frequently mentioned in the ethical (...)
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  • Communicating Ethical Values: A Study of Employee Perceptions. [REVIEW]Betsy Stevens - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 20 (2):113 - 120.
    Communicating ethical values is a serious issue for a number of organizations. While ethical codes are useful, they cannot exist alone. Organizations must make certain codes reflect the ideals of individuals in the organization and the ethical expectations must be clearly communicated. This study examined the sources (people) and channels (ways messages were received) that affected how employees learned about ethics. Results showed that training and orientation programs were affirmed as sources of learning along with teaching others. Codes and handbooks (...)
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  • Ethical Decision Making: A Review of the Empirical Literature. [REVIEW]Robert C. Ford & Woodrow D. Richardson - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (3):205 - 221.
    The authors review the empirical literature in order to assess which variables are postulated as influencing ethical beliefs and decision making. The variables are divided into those unique to the individual decision maker and those considered situational in nature. Variables related to an individual decision maker examined in this review are nationality, religion, sex, age, education, employment, and personality. Situation specific variables examined in this review are referent groups, rewards and sanctions, codes of conduct, type of ethical conflict, organization effects, (...)
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  • The Impact of Ethical Climate Types on Facets of Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation. [REVIEW]Satish P. Deshpande - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (6):655 - 660.
    This study examines the impact of ethical climate types (professionalism, caring, rules, instrumental, efficiency, and independence) on various facets of job satisfaction (pay, promotions, co-workers, supervisors, and work itself) in a large non-profit organization. Professionalism was the most reported and efficiency was the least reported ethical climate type in the organization. Among various facets of job satisfaction, respondents were most satisfied with their work and least satisfied with their pay. None of the climate types significantly influenced satisfaction with pay. A (...)
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  • Ethical Standards and Ideology Among Korean Public Relations Practitioners.Yungwook Kim - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):209 - 223.
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Korean public relations practitioners'' perceptions toward ethical issues, individual practices, and ethical standards in the context of ethical ideology. The survey was conducted with the Korean public relations practitioners. A 2 (Relativism: High/Low) × 2 (Idealism: High/Low) factorial design was devised for the analysis.The MANOVA results showed that ethical ideology (idealism and relativism) had significant effects on ethical decision-making. Idealistic ideology had a main effect on ethical issues, individual practices, and ethical (...)
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  • Continuities and Extensions of Ethical Climate Theory: A Meta-Analytic Review.Kelly D. Martin & John B. Cullen - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 69 (2):175-194.
    Using traditional meta-analytic techniques, we compile relevant research to enhance conceptual appreciation of ethical climate theory (ECT) as it has been studied in the descriptive and applied ethics literature. We explore the various treatments of ethical climate to understand how the theoretical framework has developed. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive picture of how the theory has been extended by describing the individual-level work climate outcomes commonly studied in this theoretical context. Meta-analysis allows us to resolve inconsistencies in previous findings as (...)
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  • Corporate Codes of Ethics.Leonard J. Brooks - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (2-3):117 - 129.
    The majority of North American corporations awakened to the need for their own ethical guidelines during the late 1970s and early 1980s, even though modern corporations are subject to a surprising multiplicity of external codes of ethics or conduct. This paper provides an understanding of both internal and external codes through a discussion of the factors behind the development of the codes, an analysis of internal codes and an identification of problems with them.
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  • Computer Ethics: The Role of Personal, Informal, and Formal Codes. [REVIEW]Margaret Anne Pierce & John W. Henry - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (4):425 - 437.
    Ethical decisions related to computer technology and computer use are subject to three primary influences: (1) the individual's own personal code (2) any informal code of ethical behavior that exists in the work place, and (3) exposure to formal codes of ethics. The relative importance of these codes, as well as factors influencing these codes, was explored in a nationwide survey of information system (IS) professionals. The implications of the findings are important to educators and employers in the development of (...)
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  • Ethical Climates and Managerial Success in Russian Organizations.Satish P. Deshpande, Elizabeth George & Jacob Joseph - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 23 (2):211 - 217.
    This study investigated employee perceptions of ethical climates in a sample of Russian organizations and the relationship between ethical climate and behaviors believed to characterize successful managers. A survey of managerial employees in Russia (n = 136) indicates that "rules" was the most reported and "independence" was the least reported ethical climate type. Those who perceived a strong link between success and ethical behavior report high levels of a "caring" climate and low levels of an "instrumental" climate. Implications for practitioners (...)
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  • Index of Authors Volume 5, 2001.A. Acevedo, E. H. Y. Boo, J. Brinkmann, E. S. Callahan, B. Castro, L. Chalip, P. M. Clikeman, L. Dickie, J. Down & D. D. DuFrene - 2001 - Teaching Business Ethics 5 (485).
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  • An Investigation of the Moral Reasoning of Managers.Dawn R. Elm & Mary Lippitt Nichols - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (11):817 - 833.
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  • Ethical Behavior of Marketing Managers.David J. Fritzsche & Helmut Becker - 1983 - Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):291 - 299.
    The ethical behavior of marketing managers was examined by analyzing their responses to a series of different types of ethical dilemmas presented in vignette form. The ethical dilemmas addressed dealt with the issues of (1) coercion and control, (2) conflict of interest, (3) the physical environment, (4) paternalism, and (5) personal integrity. Responses were analyzed to discover whether managers' behavior varied by type of issue faced or whether there is some continuity to ethical behavior which transcends the type of ethical (...)
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  • The Movement for Reforming American Business Ethics: A Twenty-Year Perspective. [REVIEW]Simcha B. Werner - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (1):61-70.
    This paper presents a succinct review of the movement for moral genesis in business that arose in the 1970s. The moral genesis movement is characterized by: the rejection of the premise that business and ethics are antagonistic; the rise of the Issues Management approach, which stresses the social responsibility of the corporation: disdain of government regulation as a means of business moralization, and a search for control measures aimed at improving organization moral behavior. This movement now begins to give rise (...)
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  • Ther Moderating Effect of Individuals' Percetions of Ethical Work Climate on Ethical Judgments and Behavior Intertions.Barnett Tim & Vaicys Cheryl - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (4):351-363.
    Dimensions of the ethical work climate, as conceptualized by Victor and Cullen, are potentially important influences on individual ethical decision-making in the organizational context. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of individuals' perceptions of work climate on their ethical judgments and behavioral intentions regarding an ethical dilemma. A national sample of marketers was surveyed in a scenario-based research study. The results indicated that, although perceived climate dimensions did not have a direct effect on behavioral intentions, there were (...)
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