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Psychological Essentialism and Dehumanization

In Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. Routledge (2021)

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  1. The Essential Child:Origins of Essentialism in Everyday Thought: Origins of Essentialism in Everyday Thought.Susan A. Gelman - 2003 - Oxford Series in Cognitive Development.
    Essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "dog," "man," or "intelligence," have an underlying reality or true nature that gives objects their identity. Where does this idea come from? In this book, Susan Gelman argues that essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children's concepts reflect a deep commitment to essentialism, and this commitment leads children to look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of (...)
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  • On Inhumanity: Dehumanization and How to Resist It.David Livingstone Smith - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    Throughout the darkest moments of human history, evildoers have convinced communities to turn on groups that are regarded as in some way other and, by starting to think of them as less than human, persecute or even eliminate them. We can all recognize the unfathomable evils of dehumanization in slavery, the Holocaust, the Rwandan genocide, and the Jim Crow South, but we are not free from its power today. With climate change and political upheaval driving millions of refugees worldwide to (...)
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  • What’s Left of Human Nature? A Post-Essentialist, Pluralist and Interactive Account of a Contested Concept.Maria Kronfeldner - 2018 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Human nature has always been a foundational issue for philosophy. What does it mean to have a human nature? Is the concept the relic of a bygone age? What is the use of such a concept? What are the epistemic and ontological commitments people make when they use the concept? In What’s Left of Human Nature? Maria Kronfeldner offers a philosophical account of human nature that defends the concept against contemporary criticism. In particular, she takes on challenges related to social (...)
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  • Anti-Essentialism in Feminist Theory.Charlotte Witt - 1995 - Philosophical Topics 23 (2):321-344.
  • The Metaphysics of Gender.Charlotte Witt - 2011 - Oup Usa.
  • The Less Noble Sex: Scientific, Religious, and Philosophical Conceptions of Woman's Nature.Nancy Tuana & Mildred Jeanne Peterson - 1993 - Indiana University Press.
    "This highly-readable work traces a set of beliefs about the nature of woman that have informed, and in turn have been reinforced by, science, religion, and philosophy from the classical period to the nineteenth century.... [T]his book’s analysis lends support to claims that the gender system affected our very conceptions of science." —Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences "An important book for the educated general public as well as for scholars in many disciplines. Highly recommended." —Library Journal "Students (...)
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  • Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150-1750.Lorraine Daston & Katharine Park - 1998 - Zone Books.
    Wonders and the Order of Nature is about the ways in which European naturalists from the High Middle Ages through the Enlightenment used wonder and wonders, the passion and its objects, to envision themselves and the natural world. Monsters, gems that shone in the dark, petrifying springs, celestial apparitions---these were the marvels that adorned romances, puzzled philosophers, lured collectors, and frightened the devout. Drawing on the histories of art, science, philosophy, and literature, Lorraine Daston and Katharine Park explore and explain (...)
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  • Dehumanization, Disability, and Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - 2021 - In Maria Kronfeldner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. New York, NY, USA: pp. 173-186.
    This paper explores the relationship between eugenics, disability, and dehumanization, with a focus on forms of eugenics beyond Nazi eugenics.
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  • On Human Nature.David L. Hull - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:3-13.
    If species are the things that evolve at least in large part through the action of natural selection, then both genetic and phenotypic variability are essential to biological species. If all species are variable, then Homo sapiens must be variable. Hence, it is very unlikely that the human species as a biological species can be characterized by a set of invariable traits. It might be the case that at this moment in evolutionary history, all human beings happen to possess a (...)
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  • Less Than Human: Why We Demean, Enslave, and Exterminate Others.David Livingstone Smith - 2011 - St. Martins Press.
  • The Essentialist Aspect of Naive Theories.Michael Strevens - 2000 - Cognition 74 (149):175.
    Recent work on children’s inferences concerning biological and chemical categories has suggested that children (and perhaps adults) are essentialists— a view known as psychological essentialism. I distinguish three varieties of psychological essentialism and investigate the ways in which essentialism explains the inferences for which it is supposed to account. Essentialism succeeds in explaining the inferences, I argue, because it attributes to the child belief in causal laws connecting category membership and the possession of certain characteristic appearances and behavior. This suggests (...)
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  • The Creation of the Essentialism Story: An Exercise in Metahistory.Mary P. Winsor - 2006 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (2):149 - 174.
    The essentialism story is a version of the history of biological classification that was fabricated between 1953 and 1968 by Ernst Mayr, who combined contributions from Arthur Cain and David Hull with his own grudge against Plato. It portrays pre-Darwinian taxonomists as caught in the grip of an ancient philosophy called essentialism, from which they were not released until Charles Darwin's 1859 Origin of Species. Mayr's motive was to promote the Modern Synthesis in opposition to the typology of idealist morphologists; (...)
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  • Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice.Henri Tajfel - 1969 - Journal of Biosocial Science 1 (S1):173-191.
  • The Origins of 'Natural Kinds': Keeping 'Essentialism' at Bay in the Age of Reform.Gordon McOuat - 2009 - Intellectual History Review 19 (2):211-230.
  • Dehumanization, Essentialism, and Moral Psychology.David Livingstone Smith - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (11):814-824.
    Despite its importance, the phenomenon of dehumanization has been neglected by philosophers. Since its introduction, the term “dehumanization” has come to be used in a variety of ways. In this paper, I use it to denote the psychological stance of conceiving of other human beings as subhuman creatures. I draw on an historical example – Morgan Godwyn's description of 17th century English colonists' dehumanization of African slaves and use this to identify three explanatory desiderata that any satisfactory theory of dehumanization (...)
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  • History of European Ideas.[author unknown] - 1992 - History of European Ideas 14 (4):627-628.
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  • Species.Marc Ereshefsky - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • L'homme et les sociétés, leurs origines et leur histoire.Gustave Le Bon - 1881 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 12:433-437.
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