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  1. Business Ethics as Self-Regulation: Why Principles That Ground Regulations Should Be Used to Ground Beyond-Compliance Norms as Well. [REVIEW]Wayne Norman - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (S1):43-57.
    Theories of business ethics or corporate responsibility tend to focus on justifying obligations that go above and beyond what is required by law. This article examines the curious fact that most business ethics scholars use concepts, principles, and normative methods for identifying and justifying these beyond-compliance obligations that are very different from the ones that are used to set the levels of regulations themselves. Its modest proposal—a plea for a research agenda, really—is that we could reduce this normative asymmetry by (...)
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  • Grounding Hypernorms: Toward a Contractarian Theory of Business Ethics: John R. Rowan.John R. Rowan - 1997 - Economics and Philosophy 13 (1):107-112.
  • Ties That Grind? Corroborating a Typology of Social Contracting Problems.Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, Muel Kaptein & J. van Oosterhout - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3):235-252.
    Contractualism conceives of firm-stakeholder relations as cooperative schemes for mutual benefit. In essence, contractualism holds that these schemes, as well as the normative principles that guide and constrain them, are ultimately ratified by the consent and endorsement of those subject to them. This paper explores the empirical validity of a contractualist perspective on firm-stakeholder relations. It first develops a typology of firm-stakeholder contracting problems. It subsequently confronts this typology with empirical data collected in an interview study of concrete stakeholder management (...)
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  • Persons, Rights, and Corporations.Patricia Werhane - 1988 - Journal of Business Ethics 7 (5):336-340.
     
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  • Anarchy, State, and Utopia.Robert Nozick - 1974 - Basic Books.
    Winner of the 1975 National Book Award, this brilliant and widely acclaimed book is a powerful philosophical challenge to the most widely held political and social positions of our age--liberal, socialist, and conservative.
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  • The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan.James M. Buchanan - 1975 - University of Chicago Press.
    Employing the techniques of modern economic analysis, Professor Buchanan reveals the conceptual basis of an individual's social rights by examining the ...
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  • Justice as Fairness: A Restatement.John Rawls - 2001 - Harvard University Press.
    This book originated as lectures for a course on political philosophy that Rawls taught regularly at Harvard in the 1980s.
  • Foundations and Applications for Contractualist Business Ethics.Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, J. Oosterhout & Muel Kaptein - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):211-228.
    Contractualism is one of the most promising 'centers of gravity' in business ethics. In this guest editorial we provide a concise roadmap to the field, sketching contractualism's historic and disciplinary antecedents, the basic argumentative structure of the contract model, and its boundary conditions. We also sketch two main dimensions along which contributions to the contractualist tradition can be positioned. The first dimension entails positive versus normative theorizing - does a given contribution analyze the world as it is or how it (...)
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  • Integrative Social Contracts Theory: Thomas Donaldson & Thomas W. Dunfee.Thomas Donaldson - 1995 - Economics and Philosophy 11 (1):85-112.
    Difficult moral issues in economic life, such as evaluating the impact of hostile takeovers and plant relocations or determining the obligations of business to the environment, constitute the raison d'etre of business ethics. Yet, while the ultimate resolution of such issues clearly requires detailed, normative analysis, a shortcoming of business ethics is that to date it has failed to develop an adequate normative theory. 1 The failing is especially acute when it results in an inability to provide a basis for (...)
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  • Economic Analysis, Moral Philosophy, and Public Policy.Daniel Hausman, Michael McPherson & Debra Satz - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book shows through argument and numerous policy-related examples how understanding moral philosophy can improve economic analysis, how moral philosophy can benefit from economists' analytical tools, and how economic analysis and moral philosophy together can inform public policy. Part I explores the idea of rationality and its connections to ethics, arguing that when they defend their formal model of rationality, most economists implicitly espouse contestable moral principles. Part II addresses the nature and measurement of welfare, utilitarianism and cost-benefit analysis. Part (...)
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  • Toward an Ethics of Organizations.Joshua D. Margolis - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (4):619-638.
    The organization is importantly different from both the nation-state and the individual and hence needs its own ethical models and theories, distinct from political and moral theory. To develop a case for organizational ethics, this paper advances arguments in three directions. First, it highlights the growing role of organizations and their distinctive attributes. Second, it illuminates the incongruities between organizations and moral and political philosophy. Third, it takes these incongruities, as well as organizations’ distinctive attributes, as a starting point for (...)
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  • How Binding the Ties? Business Ethics as Integrative Social Contracts - Ties That Bind: A Social Contracts Approach to Business EthicsThomas Donaldson and Thomas W. Dunfee Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.John R. Rowan - 2001 - Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (2):379-390.
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  • Economic Ethics, Business Ethics and the Idea of Mutual Advantages.Christoph Luetge - 2005 - Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (2):108-118.
    Many traditional conceptions of ethics use categories and arguments that have been developed under conditions of pre-modern societies and are not useful in the age of globalisation anymore. I argue that we need an economic ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. This conception is then elaborated further in the area of business ethics. It is illustrated in the case for banning child labour.
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  • On the Use of the Social Contract Model in Business Ethics.Ben Wempe - 2004 - Business Ethics 13 (4):332-341.
  • Can the Beast Be Tamed?: Reflections on John McMurtry's Unequal Freedoms: The Global Market as an Ethical System. [REVIEW]Bernard J. Hodgson - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 33 (1):71 - 78.
    My paper responds to certain themes of Professor John McMurtry's recent book, Unequal Freedoms: The Global Market as an Ethical System. Although I am in general sympathy with McMurtry's penetrating critique of conventional market theory and practice, I find Unequal Freedoms ambivalent on the critical question of whether endorsing and enacting the life-value code McMurtry proposes would require only a mitigation of the principles and definitive activities of the competitive market system or whether significant reforms within the system would have (...)
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  • Foundations and Applications for Contractualist Business Ethics.Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, J. & Muel Kaptein - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):211-228.
    Contractualism is one of the most promising ‘centers of gravity’ in business ethics. In this guest editorial we provide a concise roadmap to the field, sketching contractualism’s historic and disciplinary antecedents, the basic argumentative structure of the contract model, and its boundary conditions. We also sketch two main dimensions along which contributions to the contractualist tradition can be positioned. The first dimension entails positive versus normative theorizing – does a given contribution analyze the world as it is or how it (...)
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  • A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (I): Rational Bargaining and Justification. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Sacconi - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259 - 281.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view (leaving compliance and implementation problems to a related article, [Sacconi 2004b, forthcoming in the Journal of Business Ethics]). It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the firm’s (...)
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  • Contrasting the Behavioural Business Ethics Approach and the Institutional Economic Approach to Business Ethics: Insights From the Study of Quaker Employers.Sigmund Wagner-Tsukamoto - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):835-850.
    The article suggests that in a modern context, where value pluralism is a prevailing and possibly, even ethically desirable interaction condition, institutional economics provides a more viable business ethics than behavioural business ethics, such as Kantianism or religious ethics. The article explains how the institutional economic approach to business ethics analyses morality with regard to an interaction process, and favours non-behavioural, situational intervention with incentive structures and with capital exchange. The article argues that this approach may have to be prioritised (...)
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  • An Economic Approach to Business Ethics: Moral Agency of the Firm and the Enabling and Constraining Effects of Economic Institutions and Interactions in a Market Economy.Sigmund Wagner-Tsukamoto - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 60 (1):75-89.
    The paper maps out an alternative to a behavioural (economic) approach to business ethics. Special attention is paid to the fundamental philosophical principle that any moral ‘ought’ implies a practical ‘can’, which the paper interprets with regard to the economic viability of moral agency of the firm under the conditions of the market economy, in particular competition. The paper details an economic understanding of business ethics with regard to classical and neo-classical views, on the one hand, and institutional, libertarian thought, (...)
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  • Moral Commitments and the Societal Role of Business.Markus Beckmann - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (3):375-401.
    This article introduces an “ordonomic” approach to corporate citizenship. We believe that ordonomics offers a conceptual framework for analyzing both the social structure and the semantics of moral commitments. We claim that such an analysis can provide theoretical guidance for the changing role of business in society, especially in regard to the expectation and trend that businesses take a political role and act as corporate citizens. The systematic raison d’être of corporate citizenship is that business firms can and—judged by the (...)
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  • Extant Social Contracts and the Question of Business Ethics.Ben Wempe - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):741 - 750.
    ISCT arguably forms the most promising impetus to a contractarian theory of business ethics presently available. In this article, I want to pay tribute to the lasting significance of Dunfee's contribution to the field of business ethics by analyzing the vital role of the idea of extant social contracts (ESCs) in the conceptual set up of the ISCT project. The construct of ESCs can be shown to shape the problem statement from which the ISCT project proceeds – indeed it helps (...)
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  • Contract Theory and Business Ethics: A Review of Ties That Bind. [REVIEW]John R. Boatright - 2000 - Business and Society Review 105 (4):452-466.
  • Business Ethics: A Helpful Hybrid in Search of Integrity.Edmund F. Byrne - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 37 (2):121 - 133.
    What sort of connection is there between business ethics and philosophy? The answer given here: a weak one, but it may be getting stronger. Comparatively few business ethics articles are structurally dependent on mainstream academic philosophy or on such sub-specialities thereof as normative ethics, moral theory, and social and political philosophy. Examining articles recently published in the Journal of Business Ethics that declare some dependence, the author finds that such declarations often constitute only a pro forma gesture which could be (...)
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  • On the Relevance of Political Philosophy to Business Ethics.Jeffrey Moriarty - 2005 - Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (3):455-473.
    The central problems of political philosophy (e.g., legitimate authority, distributive justice) mirror the central problems of businessethics. The question naturally arises: should political theories be applied to problems in business ethics? If a version of egalitarianism is the correct theory of justice for states, for example, does it follow that it is the correct theory of justice for businesses? If states should be democratically governed by their citizens, should businesses be democratically managed by their employees? Most theorists who have considered (...)
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  • Michalos and the Theory of Ethical Theory.Bernard J. Hodgson - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 29 (1-2):19 - 23.
    The paper replies to Professor Alex Michalos'' keynote address, "Ethics Counsellors as a New Priesthood". Michalos argues that an intractable diversity of opinion about fundamental issues in ethical theory precludes substantive, well-founded ethical counselling. However, Michalos has inappropriately modelled his understanding of an acceptable structure and application for ethical theory on natural scientific theory. For we may countenance a less severe understanding of theory for ethical theory than in the hard sciences. In particular, instructive moral reasoning may tolerate a degree (...)
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  • The Order of Public Reason: A Theory of Freedom and Morality in a Diverse and Bounded World.Gerald Gaus - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this innovative and important work, Gerald Gaus advances a revised and more realistic account of public reason liberalism, showing how, in the midst of fundamental disagreement about values and moral beliefs, we can achieve a moral and political order that treats all as free and equal moral persons. The first part of this work analyzes social morality as a system of authoritative moral rules. Drawing on an earlier generation of moral philosophers such as Kurt Baier and Peter Strawson as (...)
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  • The Reason of Rules: Constitutional Political Economy.Geoffrey Brennan & James M. Buchanan - 1988 - Ethics 98 (2):394-395.
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  • Fundamentals of Order Ethics: Law, Business Ethics and the Financial Crisis.Christoph Luetge - 2012 - Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie Beihefte 130:11-21.
    During the current financial crisis, the need for an alternative to a laissez-faire ethics of capitalism (the Milton Friedman view) becomes clear. I argue that we need an order ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. -/- I will point to some aspects of order ethics which highlight the importance of rules, e.g. global rules for the financial markets. In this regard, order ethics (“Ordnungsethik”) is the complement of the (...)
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  • Order Ethics: An Ethical Framework for the Social Market Economy.Christoph Luetge & Nikil Mukerji (eds.) - 2016 - Springer.
    This book examines the theoretical foundations of order ethics and discusses business ethics problems from an order ethics perspective. Order ethics focuses on the social order and the institutional environment in which individuals interact. It is a well-established paradigm in European business ethics. The book contains articles written by leading experts in the field and provides both a concise introduction to order ethics and short summary articles homing in on specific aspects of the order-ethical paradigm. It presents contributions describing fundamental (...)
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  • The Idea of a Contractarian Business Ethics.Christoph Luetge - 2013 - In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. pp. 647--658.
  • Integrative Social Contracts Theory.Thomas Donaldson & Thomas Dunfee - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):85-112.
    Difficult moral issues in economic life, such as evaluating the impact of hostile takeovers and plant relocations or determining the obligations of business to the environment, constitute the raison d'etre of business ethics. Yet, while the ultimate resolution of such issues clearly requires detailed, normative analysis, a shortcoming of business ethics is that to date it has failed to develop an adequate normative theory.1 The failing is especially acute when it results in an inability to provide a basis for fine-grained (...)
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  • A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance : Rational Bargaining and Justification.Lorenzo Sacconi - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):259-281.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility, meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. It focuses on justification according to the contractarian point of view. It begins by providing a definition of CSR as an extended model of corporate governance, based on the fiduciary duties owed to all the firm's stakeholders. Then, by establishing the basic context of incompleteness of contracts and abuse of authority, it analyses how the (...)
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  • A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance : Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity.Lorenzo Sacconi - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):77-96.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility, meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. Whereas, justificatory issues have been discussed in a related paper, in this essay I focus on the implementation of and compliance with this normative model. The theory of reputation games, with reference to the basic game of trust, is introduced in order to make sense of self-regulation as a way to implement the social contract (...)
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  • Some Difficulties in Sacconi's View About Corporate Ethics.Pedro Francés-Gómez - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 42 (2):165 - 180.
    Lorenzo Sacconi's The Social Contract of the Firm (Berlin, Springer, 2000) is a major contribution to the normative theory of the firm. It contains a full-fledged contractarian explanation of the role of Corporate Codes of Ethics. Sacconi proposes a game-theoretical model of the normative structure of the firm, including explicit and implicit contracts binding the members of the organisation, and the so-called constitutional contract: the hypothetical agreement that sets the basic co-operative structure in which the organisation consists. While Sacconi's theory (...)
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  • A Social Contract Account for CSR as an Extended Model of Corporate Governance (II): Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Sacconi - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (1):77 - 96.
    This essay seeks to give a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. Whereas, justificatory issues have been discussed in a related paper (Sacconi, L.: 2006b, this journal), in this essay I focus on the implementation of and compliance with this normative model. The theory of reputation games, with reference to the basic game of trust, is introduced in order to make sense of self-regulation as a (...)
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  • [Book Review] a Social-Contract Theory of Organizations. [REVIEW]Michael C. Keeley - 1990 - Ethics 100 (3):681-682.
  • The Changing Role of Business in Global Society.Ingo Pies - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (3):375-401.
    This article introduces an “ordonomic” approach to corporate citizenship. We believe that ordonomics offers a conceptual framework for analyzing both the social structure and the semantics of moral commitments. We claim that such an analysis can provide theoretical guidance for the changing role of business in society, especially in regard to the expectation and trend that businesses take a political role and act as corporate citizens. The systematic raison d’être of corporate citizenship is that business firms can and—judged by the (...)
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  • Game Theory and the Social Contract.K. G. Binmore - 1994
     
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  • Four Design Criteria for Any Future Contractarian Theory of Business Ethics.Ben Wempe - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):697-714.
    This article assesses the quality of Integrative Social Contracts Theory (ISCT) as a social contract argument. For this purpose, it embarks on a comparative analysis of the use of the social contract model as a theory of political authority and as a theory of social justice. Building on this comparison, it then develops four criteria for any future contractarian theory of business ethics (CBE). To apply the social contract model properly to the domain of business ethics, it should be: (1) (...)
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  • The Modern Social Contract Tradition.Lisa Herzog - 2013 - In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. pp. 631--645.
    This chapter discusses central strands of the modern social contract tradition. Distinguishing between moral and political theories on the one hand and contractualist and contractarian theories on the other, it presents one example of each of the ensuing categories: Gauthier’s moral contractarianism, Buchanan’s political contractarianism, Scanlon’s moral contractualism, and Rawls’ political contractualism. In the conclusion, strengths and weaknesses of social contract theories are discussed.
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  • Order Ethics or Moral Surplus: What Holds a Society Together?Christoph Luetge - 2015 - Lexington Books.
    This book questions the often implicit assumption of many contemporary political philosophers that a society needs its citizens to adopt some shared basic qualities, views, or capabilities. Christoph Luetge provides an alternative view, which relies on mutual advantages as the fundamental basis of society.
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  • Ties That Grind? Corroborating a Typology of Social Contracting Problems.Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, Muel Kaptein & J. Oosterhout - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3):235 - 252.
    Contractualism conceives of firm-stakeholder relations as cooperative schemes for mutual benefit. In essence, contractualism holds that these schemes, as well as the normative principles that guide and constrain them, are ultimately ratified by the consent and endorsement of those subject to them. This paper explores the empirical validity of a contractualist perspective on firm-stakeholder relations. It first develops a typology of firm-stakeholder contracting problems. It subsequently confronts this typology with empirical data collected in an interview study of concrete stakeholder management (...)
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  • Understanding Institutional Diversity.Elinor Ostrom - 2007 - Environmental Values 16 (1):129-132.
     
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  • Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics.Christopher Luetege (ed.) - 2013 - Springer.
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